Industrialization and Nationalism
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Industrial Revolution Begins in Great Britain in 1780’s o Why was Great Britain the perfect starting place?
• 1st Agrarian Revolution: more food, less cost, more people can buy manufactured goods. • 2nd Population Increase: more food and the population grew. •
Enclosure Movement Laws: landowners fenced off common lands, people moved to cities, LABOR SUPPLY!!!!
• 3rd Ready Supply of Money: British had capabilities to invest in economy • Capital: money which you can invest in new machines and factories. • Entrepreneurs: people who found ways to make profits in a Laissez-faire market economy, ruled by supply and demand, with little government intervention
• 4th Plentiful Natural Resources: rivers power factories, rivers used to transport goods, and abundant supply of coal and iron • 5th Supply of Markets: colonies are outlets to sell manufactured goods to
Great Britain Dominates o By mid 19th Century Richest Nation o Produced ½ of world’s coal/manufactured goods o Cotton industry alone equal in size to all European countries combined
European Industrialization o France, Belgium, and Germany Industrialize
• Governments actively encourage industrialization • Provided funds to build roads, canals, and railroads
American Industrialization o 1800 Population=5 million
• 6/7 people were farmers • No city larger than 100,000 o 1860 Population=30 million
• ½ of population now farmers • 9 cities now have populations larger than 100,000
Robert Fulton: built the first paddle-wheel steamboat o The Clermont 1807
Railroad o 1830= 100 miles of tracks o 1860= 30,000 miles of tracks
Industrial Revolution drastically changed society o Two New Social Classes
• Industrial Middle Class • Industrial Working Class
European Population o 1750=140 million o 1850=266 million o Why did this happen?
• Wars/Epidemics Less Frequent • Increase in Food Supply
European Urbanization o Jobs located in cities, people migrate to job centers o City populations grow
o Living conditions poor
Industrial Capitalism: an economic system based on industrial production. o Rise of the Industrial Middle Class
• People who built factories, bought machines, and developed the markets • They had initiative, vision, ambition, and often, greed
Industrial Working Class o 12-16 hour workdays (6 days a week) o No job security o No minimum wage o Dangerous conditions
o Gender wage discrimination
Socialism: an economic system in which government owns and controls some means of production such as factories and utilities o Public Ownership o Wealth Distribution
“Ideal Society” o Workers could use their abilities and everyone’s needs would be met.
Robert Owen: British cotton manufacture, Utopian Socialist o Believed that humans would show their natural goodness if
they lived in a cooperative environment
Using credible resources please research the following key topics and record your information on this organizer.
Make sure you have a concept of all terms and understand the key concepts which relate.
Please note this Industrial Revolution takes place between 1780-1850 o KEEP IN MIND CONTEXT
Your newspaper must have… o TWO news stories and ONE editorial (your opinion on whether or not
industrialization was successful or not) o Stories should be at least 200 words and use PRIMARY SOURCES o At LEAST one picture on newspaper • 1st Story: How was industrialization impacting children, women, or working conditions in general • 2nd Story: MUST pertain to an invention of the Industrial Revolution. (Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, etc.) Should discuss inventor and importance. • 3rd Story: You must write an editorial giving your opinion whether or not the changes of the Industrial Revolution helped or harmed the society, and why. This should include strong FACTS to support your opinion.
Please hand in your projects in two separate piles.
Respond to the following question in your notes. o How did the Industrial Revolution impact the development of Europe and
North America? Do you believe this was a positive or a negative development? Why?
After Napoleon is defeated, European rulers moved to restore old order. o Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
Congress of Vienna: meeting between major European nations to arrange final peace settlement o Klemens von Metternich: Austrian foreign minister and most influential
leader at meeting • Royal families should be restored • This would ensure peace and stability within Europe
Principle of Intervention: great powers had the right to send in armies into a country where there were revolutions to restore order
Divide your paper into 3 sections…
What do you know about the following topics? o Conservatism o Liberalism o Nationalism
How might this connect to the Congress of Vienna?
the following questions
o Describe what the Congress of Vienna was.
What decision was made about Europe during this meeting? What were the 3 “isms” we discussed yesterday? o Homework: Read the Nationalism Then and
Now worksheet. Create a T chart which illustrates the differences from then and now.
Working in your assigned groups; Read, research, and compile your information relating to Conservatism, Liberalism, and Nationalism
On your poster you must do the following o Define your assigned “ism” o Have some illustration which connects to your “ism” o Insert quotes which would support your “ism” o Include at least 1 leader of the 19th century who would support your “ism”
out the T Chart from last nights homework
the following question
o How has nationalism changed and stayed the same
over time? Do you think nationalism is a positive or a negative thing? Why ? Homework:
Please complete the 19-2 Section Review. –note, it may be VERY beneficial…
Conservative order controls Europe by mid-19th century
Liberalism and Nationalism grows
Forces of change erupted in the Revolutions of 1848
Severe economic problems o Harm lower middle class, workers, and peasants
Middle class wants right to vote, Louis Philippe refused o Monarchy overthrown in 1848 o Set up a temporary government
• Republic: a government in which officials are elected. • Universal Male Suffrage: all men can vote o Louis Napoleon: elected as president (nephew of Napoleon)
German Confederation: 38 independent German states which the Congress of Vienna recognized
German people want more rights… o Free press, jury trials, and other liberal reforms
Frankfurt Assembly: May 1848 an all German parliament meets to fulfill a nationalist dream to unify o Adopts a constitutional monarchy o Universal male suffrage
Fails to gain support needed o German unification fails
Austrian Empire o Multinational State: a collection of different peoples
• VERY PROBLEMATIC! o March 1848
• Demonstrations erupt in major cities • Revolutionary forces capture Vienna • Demanding Liberal constitution o 1849
• Russian and Austrian forces enter Austria • Rebels defeated • Revolutions failed
Congress of Vienna set up 9 states in Italy o 1848 Lombardy and Venetia revolt against Austrians o Other states rise up wanting to unify Italy under a constitution
1849 o Austria had reestablished control in Lombardy and Venetia o Old order remains powerful
Open to page 629
Complete the Section 2 Review
Answer Questions 1-7
The Revolutions of 1848 Failed
By 1871 Germany and Italy will unify
Crimean War of 1853: conflict between Russia and The Ottoman Empire, which entangled Great Britain and France. o Russia has heavy losses
o Treaty of Paris 1856 • Effects of the Crimean War • Destroyed Concert of Europe • Humiliated Russia withdraws from political situation • Opened the door for unification of Italy and Germany
1850 Austria Dominates Italy o People looking to Italian State of Piedmont for unification
• King Victor Emmanuel II • Camillo di Cavour: Prime Minister under King, made an alliance with French Emperor Louis Napoleon • Austria Declared War in 1859 • Peace Settlement-Austria loses Lombardy • Causes many Italian states to overthrow their kings in order to unify with Piedmont (Parma, Modena, and Tuscany)
Giuseppe Garibaldi: Dedicated Italian Patriot who raised an army of 1,000 volunteers
Romanticism: intellectual movement by the end of 1700’s which emerged as a reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment. o Focus on feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing, rather
than reason o Valued individualism, uniqueness of people
Romantic Art o 1st Art is a reflection of the artist’s inner feelings o 2nd Artist abandoned classical reason for warmth and emotion o Eugene Delacroix: most famous Romantic artist from France
• “Painting should be a feast to the eye” • Liberty Leading the People •
Romantic Music o Ludwig van Beethoven: most famous composer of this time period who
embodied both classical and romantic music • Third Symphony • “I must write, for what weighs on my heart, I must express” • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tHvztnHOWEQ
Literature o Romantics had an interest in the past o Sir Walter Scott: Romantic writer who chose medieval subjects and created
stories that expressed their strong nationalism • Ivanhoe
Gothic Literature o Mary Shelley: Wrote about exotic and unfamiliar topics
• Frankenstein o Edgar Allan Poe: Wrote short stories of horror
Industrialization would cause people to become alienated form their inner selves and from the natural world… o Do you think this is true? Why?
Louis Pasteur: proposed the germ theory of disease o People begin to trust science over faith
Secularization: the process by which an indifference or rejection of religion in the affairs of the world. o truth can be found in science
Charles Darwin: Scientist who proposed the idea that humans are material beings who are part of the natural world. o On the Origin if Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)
• Organic Evolution: simpler forms of life to more complex • Natural Selection: being born more adaptable to their environment which helps them compete and survive • “survival of the fittest”
o The Decent of Man (1871)
• Human beings had animal origins • Caused major controversy, however; many scientists came to accept his theory
How did the theory of Natural Selection influence the way people saw the world?
Realism: belief that the world should be viewed realistically o Emerged because of scientific outlook
Realism in Literature o Rejected romanticism
o Write about ordinary characters from real life, not romantic heroes in exotic
settings o Charles Dickens: novelist who embodied the reality of life for the poor during the Industrial Age. • Oliver Twist
Realism in Art o Art reflected ordinary people o “I have never seen angels or goddesses, so I am not interested in painting