Industry Key Issue 2 revised 2014

May 10, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Industry Key Issue 2 Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions? Rubenstein 1.

Define each of the following: a. Situation factors

b. Site factors:

*SITUATION FACTORS 2. What are inputs?

3. Location near inputs: COPPER INDUSTRY a.

What is a “bulk-reducing” industry?

b. Make a brief flowchart to illustrate how copper is an example of this.

c. How dies energy play a role in the siting of copper mills?

4. Origin of steel industry… iron industry a. In what way did iron production benefit from the steam engine?

b. What was the name of the man who patented the steam engine in 1769? c. Henry Cort patented two processes to purify iron. What were the names of these processes?

d. Why did manufacturers during the Industrial Revolution turn to coal instead of using wood?

5. Coal a. Define coke b. How is the spatial distribution of steel and iron industry influenced by coal?

6. Location near inputs: STEEL MILLS The text describes the changing location of steel mills in the U.S. Explain why each location was preferred. a. Pittsburg, southwestern Pennsylvania

b. Locations around southern shore of Lake Erie

c. Southern Lake Michigan (Gary, Indiana and Chicago)

d. East and West Coasts (Trenton, New Jersey and Los Angeles, California)

e. Current production – Why are the newest steel mills (minimills) beginning to move closer to markets and away from inputs?

7. Location NEAR MARKETS a. What is a “bulk-gaining” industry?

b. Give three examples of this type of industry.

c. Fabricated metals and machinery i. What are fabricated metals and machinery? Give two examples.


Why has the distribution of motor vehicle plants changed during the past three decades (make sure you address greater diversity in products)?


In geographic terms, if a company has a product that is made only at one plant, and the critical locational factor is to minimize the ___________________ of distributing it to the ____________ and ____________________ consumers, then the optimal factory location is in the U.S. ____________________rather than on the East or West Coasts.

8. Single-market manufacturers a. Specialized manufacturers make products that are designed to be sold primarily in a single market. Describe an example of a single-market manufacturer.

b. Manufacturers of parts for motor vehicles are specialized manufacturers with only _________________________________________________ c. What are “just-in-time” parts? Where do these parts manufacturers tend to cluster?

9. Perishable products. List examples of perishable products that must be located near their markets.

10. Give reasons for which each of the following modes of transportation might be selected by a manufacturer to deliver their products to market. SHIP



AIR _____________________________________________________________________________________

11. What is a break-of-bulk point?


What happens to costs at these points?


Give two examples of important break-of-bulk points:

SITE FACTORS 12. What are three production cost factors associated with the site of an industry? (MEMORIZE them)

13. What is the most important site factor at a global scale?

LABOR 14. Define: labor intensive industry

15. Define capital intensive industry

16. What industry accounts for a high percentage of the world’s women employed in manufacturing?

17. List five facts about the TEXTILE INDUSTRY worldwide: a. b. c. d. e. 18. Textile and apparel spinning a. What was the cottage industry and when did it exist? What transformed spinning from the cottage industry to a highly clustered industry?

b.What effect did the invention of the spinning frame have on spinning?

c. What is the principal natural fiber and what percentage of the total is it? In what regions of the world is natural fiber spinning concentrated? d. What was the first commercially successful synthetic fiber?

e. Today, synthetics account for __________ and natural fibers only __________ of world thread production. f.

China produces __________ of the world’s cotton thread.

19.Textile and apparel weaving a. True or False Weaving is a labor intensive industry. b. What percentage of the world’s woven cotton fabric is produced in LDCs? c. In what way was the chemical industry critical in processing food for the increasing number of factory workers in cities?

20. Textile and apparel assembly… a. Where are most of the 80 billion articles of clothing (sold worldwide in a year) produced?

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