International Human Rights
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International Human Rights
The Prohibition of Slavery • 1815: Congress of Vienna, Final Act • Treaty between United States and Great Britain for the Suppression of the Slave Trade; April 7,1862 • League of Nations. Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery, September 25, 1926 • United Nations. Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention Signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926, December 7, 1953 • United Nations. Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, September 7, 1956
League of Nations. Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery, September 25, 1926 Article 2 The High Contracting Parties undertake, each in respect of the territories placed under its sovereignty, jurisdiction, protection, suzerainty or tutelage, so far as they have not already taken the necessary steps: ( a ) To prevent and suppress the slave trade; ( b ) To bring about, progressively and as soon as possible, the complete abolition of slavery in all its forms.
International Humanitarian Law • 1864:Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field • Lieber Code • Institut de Droit International (1880) • Hague Peace Conference 1899: Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land, with annexed Regulations • (Hague Peace Conference 1907)
“Geneva Law” • Convention relative to the Treatment of the Sick and Wounded on Land (1949, subtituting the 1929 Convention) • Convention relative to the Treatment of the Sick and Wounded at Sea (1949) • Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (1949, substituting the 1929 Convention) • Convention relative to the Protection of CivilianPersons in Time of War (1949) • Additional Protocol (I) relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict (1967) • Additional Protocol (II) relating to the Protecition of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (1967)
Relationship between IHL and IHR ICJ Advisory Opinion, Wall in Palestine (2004) As regards i:he relationship between international humanitarian law and human rights law, there are thus three possible situations: some rights may be exclusively matters of international humanitarian law; others may be exclusively matters of human rights law; yet others may be matters of both these branches of international law. In order to answer the question put to it, the Court will have to take into consideration both these branches of inlernational law, namely human rights law and, as lex specialis, international humanitarian law.
International Labour Rights ILO Constitution (1919), Preamble: “universal and lasting peace can be
established only if it is based upon social justice”
Minority Rights Regimi previsti dai trattati di pace Art. 27 Patto sui diritti civili e politici (1966) Convenzione quadro per la protezione delle minoranze nazionali (Consiglio d’Europa, 1995) Carta europea per le lingue regionali e minoritarie (Consiglio d’Europa, 1992)
Minority Rights PCIJ, Advisory Opinion, Minority Schools in Albania (1935), at 19 “It is perhaps not easy to define the distinction between the notions of equality in fact and equality in law; nevertheless it may be said that the former notion excludes the idea of a merely formal equality (…) Equality in law precludes discrimination of any kind; whereas equality in fact may involve the necessity of different treatment in order to attain a result which estabilshes an equilibrium between different situations”