# Introduction to Research

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Math, Statistics And Probability, Statistics

#### Description

Introduction to Research Chapter 1

KNES 510 Research Methods in Kinesiology 1

Research and Truth There is no truth!-Plato's cave – No proof either

Separation of science, philosophy and religion – Religion>science? – Science>religion?

Aristotle, Plato, Socrates Einstein-dice

Basic

Applied

Nature of Research Systematic – plan, identify, design, collect data, evaluate Logical – examine procedures to evaluate conclusions Empirical – decisions are based on data (observation) Reductive – general relationships are established from data Replicable – actions are recorded 6

Unscientific Methods of Problem Solving Tenacity Intuition Authority The rationalistic method The empirical method

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Scientific Method of Problem Solving Step 1: develop the problem (define and delimit it) – identify independent and dependent variables

Step 2: formulate the hypotheses – the anticipated outcome

Step 3: gather data – maximize internal and external validity

Step 4(5): analyze and interpret results 8

Variables in Experimental Studies Independent variable – Variable that is manipulated (treatment is administered; has levels)

Dependent variable – What you measure. (effect of the independent variable)

Simplest study has one independent variable and one dependent variable 9

Variables in Experimental Studies, cont’d Effect of Isocaloric CHO vs. CHO-Pro Supplements on Time-toExhaustion (Kristy L. Richardson, Master’s thesis, CSUF)

A 2 x 2, time (first test to exhaustion, second test to exhaustion) x supplement (CHO vs. CHO-Pro), repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the difference in time-toexhaustion

Condition 1 Pre and CHO

Time 2 Post and CHO

Condition 2 Pre and CHO-Pro

Time 2 Post and CHO-Pro 10

Applied Research Montoya BS, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Zinder SM. Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(5):1566-1569, 2009.

Step 1: develop the problem – identify independent and dependent variables

Step 2: formulate the hypotheses – the anticipated outcome

Step 3: gather data – maximize internal and external validity

Step 4(5): analyze and interpret results 11

Basic vs. Applied Research Basic research – type of research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control of the conditions Applied research – type of research that has direct value to practitioners but in which the researcher has limited control over the research setting 12

Continuum of Basic vs. Applied Research • Level I—Basic research – Goal: Theory-driven – Approach: Laboratory • Level II—Moderate relevance – Goal: Theory-based using relevant movements – Approach: Similar to real-world task or setting • Level III—Applied research – Goal: Immediate solutions – Approach: Real-world settings 13

Experimental vs. Non-experimental Research Experimental research – Treatments are given to subjects – Cause-and-effect questions

Non-experimental research – Treatments are not given to subjects – Participants are observed as they naturally exist

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Experimental vs. CausalComparative Studies Researchers may not be able to conduct experimental research due to ethical or legal concerns, etc. Examples – physical activity and heart disease – anabolic-androgenic steroids and liver cancer

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Experimental vs. CausalComparative Studies, cont’d Steps in causalcomparative (ex post facto) studies 1. Observe and describe some current condition 2. Look to the past to determine cause(s)

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Types of Nonexperimental Research Causal-comparative Survey (poll) – Sample vs. census

Case study Longitudinal Correlational Historical 17

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Quantitative – data are gathered such that they can be quantified and subjected to statistical analyses Qualitative – data are gathered such that they can be analyzed through informed judgment

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Quantitative vs. Qualitative

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CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis Thesis – written product of a systematic study of a significant problem…The finished product evidences originality, critical and independent thinking, appropriate organization and format, and thorough documentation Creates new knowledge, extends existing knowledge 20

CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis Format of thesis – Five-chapter format 1. Introduction 2. Review of Literature 3. Methods 4. Results

5. Discussion 1. References 2. Tables and figures 21

CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis –

Journal format 1.

Similar to traditional format with some differences (i.e., the review of literature is part of the appendices)

Thesis committee – one chairperson and two members Use of human subjects – requires submission of application to the CSUF Institutional Review Board (IRB) prior to collecting data

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CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Project Project – disseminates theoretical material for the practitioner or layperson in a given field Project committee – project chairperson and one committee member Typically in the form of a manual, brochure, videotape, handbook, etc. In addition to the project, a written review of literature is required 23

CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis and Project Proposal-intro, summary of lit review, methods and stats (slides) Defense-same as above with results, discussion, tables and figures

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CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Comp Exam Comprehensive exam – provides the student with the opportunity to synthesize and articulate the knowledge acquired throughout the graduate education and helps in preparing the student for his or her chosen profession

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CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Comp Exam The student is required to complete the written comprehensive examination in the major area of academic concentration and minor The examination will be 3 hours in length for the major and 1 ½ hours for the minor The faculty member responsible for the specific section determines the number of questions One question examining research design and/or statistics is included in the major area 26

CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Comp Exam If all committee members are satisfied with written portion, a 90 minute oral exam is scheduled at least two weeks after the written exams Further questioning on major/minor areas and statistics/research design

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Next Class Chapter 2 Get a peer reviewed journal article for your lit review – Print out entire article and attach to synopsis

Write synopsis (one page): – What did they do? – What did they find? – What does it mean? 28