IR_Slide_Notes

January 13, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Industrial Revolution Slide Notes

Pre-Industrial Society

In this slide we see the painting Harvest Scene depicting preindustrial village life. Men, women and children worked together in the fields around the village parish and take their food and drink out in the fields during the workday.

Pre-Industrial Society • Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming) • 1 of 3 fields left empty to regain fertility • Land use was inefficient • Farmers didn’t experience with new farming methods. • Population was growing-more food was needed.

Agricultural Revolution

In this slide we see a manor surrounded by fields showing the rotation of four crops: barley, clover, turnips and wheat. Before crop rotation was discovered, two of the four fields were left fallow to regain fertility, a very inefficient use of land.

Agricultural Revolution • Enclosure Movement (fencing off of public lands) • Crop Rotation • Introduction of the Seed Drill. • New Crops: Corn and Potato

Results of the Agricultural Revolution

•Food Production Increased •Population Increased

The Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism

In this slide we see a painting of a cottage industry scene from Ireland in 1783. The women here are spinning, reeling with a clock-reel, and boiling yarn to prepare it to be woven into cloth.

The Cottage Industry • Families take raw materials and manufacture goods at home. • Cottage Industry is an example of early Capitalism. • Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership, free competition and profit.

Capitalism vs Communism • Private Ownership • Competition • Incentives for the workers • Best product at the lowest price

• Public Ownership • No Competition • No Incentive for workers • Equality

Capitalism (USA)-Communism (China)

The Textile Industry and Factory System

In this slide we see workers at the mule-spinning machines making cotton cloth in an English textile mill in 1834. The woman to the right is re-tying a broken thread, while the child inside the machine is cleaning up bits of cotton that have fallen through.

Rise of the Factory • Cottage industry could not keep up with the demand. • New inventions: Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Power Loom and Cotton Gin. • New machines were too large for homes. • Factories located near power sources: coal, iron and water.

The Factory System

• Workers and Machines together in one place to produce a product.

Effects of Textile Production • Prices of mass-produced textiles were lower than hand-produced items. • Britain’s textile industry increased. • Majority of villagers were forced to leave to find work in urban factories.

The Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution

In this slide we see a painting done around 1820 of one of James Watt's steam pumping engines at the pit head of an English coal mine in the 1790's. The steam engine pumped water out of the mines, reducing the danger of underground flooding.

The Steam Engine • Early factories relied on horsed, oxen and water mills. • The steam engine evolved in response to the increasing need for power. • Steam power, used where ever coal existed, increased textile production.

James Watt & his Steam Engine

Need for Iron and Coal • Farming tools • Carbon necessary for • New smelting iron Machines • Steam engines • Railways powered by coal

Iron and Coal: Energy for the Industrial Revolution

In this slide we see a painting of men pouring steel bars at an iron works factory in at Copenhagen, Denmark in 1885.

Effects of Iron and Coal • Britain produced more iron than all other countries in the world combined. • Coal powered Britain’s enormous navy.

Transportation In this slide we George Stephenson's Rocket winning the Manchester-Liverpool race in Britain in 1829. The first steam locomotive in England, the Rocket traveled at 29 miles per hour.

Transportation • Increase in production led to a need to transport goods quickly and cheaply. • Improvement in roads (stone and asphalt) and canals improved transportation. • The Rocket (1829) improved the transportation of goods and people.

Advances In Transportation

Why Britain……...

….Led the Way! • Natural resources: Coal and Iron. • Government encouraged trade. • Colonial empire supplied raw materials and provided markets for goods. • No competition with other countries. • Merchants had $ to invest.

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