Italian Unification

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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The Age of Nation-States

The Crimean War Originally between Russia & Ottomans Ottomans give Catholic France control of the Holy Lands instead of Orthodox Russia Russia vows to protect Christians in the Holy Lands - move to invade - Ottomans declare war Russia invades Moldavia and Walachia (Rumania) - Austria forces out

The Crimean War Britain & France fear Russian aggression declare war Both sides have naval interests in the Black Sea Both sides blunder - large casualties

The Crimean War First photographed war Prussia neutral - but gains from Austrian/Russian conflict Russia looses control of Black Sea in defeat Concert of Europe unable to keep the peace - next generation not committed to power balance each nation seeks own goals

Italian Unification Sought unification since Congress of Vienna Romantic Republicans lead insurrections Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Garibaldi

Wanted path of selfdetermination away from Austria

Plans for Italian Unification Plan 1 - unite behind Pope (1848/9) - Austria and France defeat the Roman Republic Plan 2 - unite behind only independent state, Piedmont (Sardinia) - made independent by Congress of Europe as a buffer between France and Austria Piedmont Prime Minister aids France in Crimean War with 10,000 troops - thrusts Piedmont onto world stage

Camillo Cavour Cavour & Napoleon III scheme to provoke war to drive Austria out of Italy France gets provinces of Nice & Savoy for help Piedmont/France drives Austria - Napoleon III fears Piedmont - signs own treaty with Austria

The New Italian State Garibaldi unites southern Italy - Sicily and Naples Northern Italy united with Piedmont Garibaldi accepts total unification Venetia and Rome added by 1870

Italy Gain Venetia in deal with Prussians in war with Austria Gain area around Rome after French lose Franco-Prussian War - city of Rome remains hostile Form of government: monarchy - Victor Emmanuel from Piedmont Franchise limited - corruption abounds

German Unification Unification attempted by liberals since 1815 Prussia becomes dominant in German affairs Prussian King Wilhelm I and Chancellor Otto von Bismarck embrace “Small German” policy

Otto von Bismarck Prussian nobleman Liberal turned conservative Pro-industrial Pro-military Anti-Parliament seeks to unite Germans without legislature

Bringing Germany Together Beats Danes who try to take Holstein and Schleswig out of German Confederation Beats Austrians in 7 weeks to gain dominance over German speaking people

The North German Confederation Bismarck annexes Hesse, Nassau, & Hanover (formerly supported Austria) in new group King of Prussia as leader Bicameral legislature with no real power Bismarck steals thunder of some liberals who wanted unification Bismarck seeks a war to bring southern German states into the Confederation

The Franco-Prussian War Queen Isabella of Spain deposed Spanish pick a Hohenzollern, Leopold (cousin to Wilhelm) France objects, asks Wilhelm for support Bismarck revises The Ems Telegram to look like Wilhelm insulted France France declares war on the Northern Confederation

The Franco-Prussian War Southern German states side with Bismarck Germans capture Napoleon III Defeat French in 9 months - forced to give up provinces of Alsace and Lorraine German Empire proclaimed - most important event in Europe in the 19th century Italy and Germany become new rivals to France and Austria

France: Liberal Empire The Third Republic proclaimed after Napoleon III’s capture - France sues for peace Paris Commune attempts to rule Paris independently of France National Assembly kills over 20,000 to restore order Government looks for a king to rule - Chambord refuses because of use of revolutionary flag

France: The Third Republic Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage Senate chosen indirectly - president selected from group Government proves to be surprisingly efficient against corruption and ineptitude Lasts until Germans march into Paris again in World War II

The Dreyfus Affair Divided French society on the fairness of government Captain Alfred Dreyfus convicted of espionage to Germany during FrancoPrussian War, convicted

The Dreyfus Affair Accusations against the government Corruption - cover-up for mistakes - AntiSemitism Government refuses new trial even with evidence of forgery Writer Emil Zola reports on case - stirs public New trial again convicts - President pardons France remains politically divided

The Habsburg Empire Excepting Russia, the least liberal of European governments Franz Joseph comes to power in 1848 - rules in absolutist style Problem of holding ethnically diverse population together - Magyars, Slavs, Italians Loss of Italy suggested inefficient chain of command - Franz Joseph reorganizes twice both rejected by Magyars

The Compromise of 1867 Franz Joseph creates two nations ruled by him - The Dual Monarchy Austria & Hungary (Magyar) Separate Parliaments created Czechs want same deal - trialism Franz Joseph agrees but Magyars oppose - did not want to give autonomy to its subject groups of Romanians and Croatians - continued unrest

The Dual Monarchy Czech leaders appeased with jobs Demonstrations in Reichsrat for Czech nationalism until WWI Franz Joseph gives right of language in ethnic areas, introduces universal male suffrage in Austria

Russian Reform Nicolas I dies during Crimean War - Alexander II institutes reforms including abolition of serfdom (U.S. and Brazil remain) Former serfs given rights but no land - forced to buy from landowners over 49 year period interest paid to the government

Russian Reform Many fail to pay - debt not forgiven until 1906 Without landlords to control serf, new system of government needed - Village communes “Zemstovs” organized to adjudicate local matters Military reformed to fill ranks after abolition of serfdom - terms of service shortened - rules relaxed

Russian Repression Alexander II squelches revolt by the Polish nobility, emancipates their serfs, forces Russian language on Poles Alexander becomes more repressive after assassination attempt in 1866 - creates police state Radical opposition begins to mount exiled Alexander Herzen leads effort

Revolutionaries in Russia Social revolution preached in radical societies like “Land and Freedom” Young revolutionaries go to peasants to educate them - peasants turn revolutionaries over to the police Courts give light sentences in hope of support

Assassination of Alexander II Attacks against government continue until Alexander II is killed

Son Alexander III rules with an iron fist

Britain: Toward Democracy Continues to refine liberal form of government - symbol of the confident liberal state Address issues of expanding suffrage, secret ballot, education, care for the poor Parliament passes the Second Reform Act of 1867 - increases electorate by 1,000,000

British Prime Ministers Benjamin Disraeli conservative - hoped expanded middle class would favor conservatism William Gladstone - liberal backs government’s assumption of responsibility for education

Disraeli and Gladstone Both seek reform Take turns as Prime Minister Gladstone gives support to Irish home rule, splitting Liberal Party Irish hold balance of power in Parliament Home rule passes on the third attempt


The Age of Nation-States

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