language - Istituto Magistrale \"Isabella Gonzaga\"

January 9, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology
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Istituto Statale ‘ISABELLA GONZAGA’, Chieti Liceo Linguistico Seminar


Prof.ssa Marisa DI LELLO March 15th 2014

The Language of tourism  Goal

Its objective is to promote, inform and communicate the value of tourist attractions, attract, and convince the greatest number of tourists. “persuade, lure, woo, and seduce millions of human beings, and, in so doing, convert them from potential into actual clients” (G.Dann)

 Requirements

Simplicity, precision, accuracy, clarity, accessibility and usability

Multiplicity of ‘labels’ In the English-speaking world:  J.R Firth: English for Tourism is included among the

“restricted languages”. They are designated as LSP (Languages for Specific Purposes) or more specifically (ESP English for Specific Purposes).

In Italy:  De Mauro: ‘scientific language’  Berruto, Cortellazzo, Sobrero: ‘special language’  Gotti: ‘specialized language’

 Gotti

“Specialized languages are defined as those subsystems of the common language that are used in professional, technical or scientific fields for descriptive or communicative purposes ." The language of tourism is therefore included among the special languages because:  is a 'subsystem of the common language',  makes use of own lexical and morpho-syntactic rules and

own textual structures,  is used in a 'particular professional field' ‘for descriptive or communicative purposes' by both experts and the general public.

 Balboni observes that the language of tourism is to be

seen as a bundle of micro-languages to be broken into its various functional and thematic parts. Each part has its own features.  Calvi observes that the language of tourism has an

‘elusive 'physiognomy ' since it:  absorbs/borrows words from various fields (geography,

economy, sociology, psychology, history, art history, gastronomy, sport, architecture, archeology, environment, religion, business, customs and tradition, music and dance);  embodies several functions (persuasive, informative, argumentative);  is multidisciplinary, elusive and hybrid


LEXICAL ASPECTS  Technical terms - […] a beautifully balanced painting in which the poses of Gabriel and Mary carefully mirror one another, while the hand of God releasing the dove of the Holy Spirit provides the vanishing point (Rough Guide, 2003:43). - The most eye-catching canvas in room 2 is the anamorphic portrait of the same, syphilitic Edward VI, […] (Rough Guide, 2003:51). - Next door is the Queen’s Robing chamber, which boasts a superb coffered ceiling and lacklustre Arthurian frescoes (Rough Guide, 2003:69). - The Henry VII Chapel, in the easternmost part of the abbey, is an outstanding example of late-perpendicular architecture, with spectacular circular vaulting on the ceiling. The wooden choir stalls are carved with exotic creatures and adorned with colourful heraldic flags […] (Lonely Planet, 2004:126).

Lexical strategies  keywords, used to “fire the immagination”,

“persuade, lure, woo, and seduce millions of human beings, and, in so doing, convert them from potential into actual clients” (G.Dann) Away adventure dream Imagination pleasure


 ‘languaging’:

The use of foreign words which are real or invented induces a feeling of inferiority in tourists who thus let themselves be influenced and guided by the tourist message. For instance: “If you are lucky, you may also see the world famous Sri Sri Radha Londonisvara” (The London Discount Guide – leaflet).

 Figures of speech, in particular metaphors and


Similes are used to “manage the unfamiliarity of destination for the tourist” (G.Dann). “metaphors and hyperboles have never proved to be suitable for tourism"(Boyer e Viallon), because they do not meet tourist discourse’s prime requirements of clarity and simplicity.

 Word formation  common terms take on a different meaning in special languages:

package > package tour congestion > air traffic congestion (or traffic jam)

 Acronyms and Initials: B&B (bed and breakfast), DLR

(Docklands Light Railway), TfL (Transport for London), LTB (London Tourist Board), internationally-accepted abbreviations of cities and airports  New compound words: Half-board, full-board, hotel chain; holiday farmhouse; theme park; game reserve; one way ticket; combined ticket.

MORPHO-SYNTACTIC ASPECTS  Verb  Noun  Passive voice Superlatives -Britain’s oldest Catholic church […] (Time Out, 2003:101) -Among the most striking armour displayed […] (Rough Guide, 2003:217) -For old Westminster is London at its grandest (The Original London Walks – brochure) -Some of the tower’s most famous prisoners were held around Tower Green (The Tower of London – brochure)

Verb tenses

 Present simple

- Standing alone in the vast empty tract of the Salisbury plains and with origins dating back nearly 5,000 years, Stonehenge remains a place of wonder and mystery. (Bath, Windsor & Stonehenge – brochure). - The past is cast in stone and we take it all in: ancient Westminster Hall, the House of Parliament, the Jewel Tower, and Westminster Abbey. And to see it with a great guide is to have that past suddenly rise to the surface…like seeing a photographic print come up in a darkroom. (The Original London Walks – brochure)

 Imperative 1.

Invites the tourist to participate to the attraction Gain a fascinating insight into the role of the Crown Jewels in royal pageantry with our introductory films, which include rare colour footage of HM Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation. Once inside the Treasury, marvel at the Imperial State Crown worn at the Opening of Parliament and be dazzled by the world’s largest, top quality cut diamond, Cullinan I, set in the Sovereign’s Sceptre. (The Tower of London – brochure)

2. Is used to give instructions Start with your back to the entrance of Hampstead Heath train station. Turn right up South Road, with the heath looming before you on the right. (Time Out, 2003:148)

Modal verbs will, would, can, could, may, might, should, must In the language of tourism modal verbs do not indicate the future (will), probability and possibility (would, can, could, may, might), obligation (should, must), but express “a way of behaviour, a mode of action to be taken by the tourist who is being addressed” (P.Edwards e C.Carrettero). On the way to Westminster Abbey you will hear about Leonardo Da Vinci, and get a chance to see a work of him. At Westminster Abbey you can hear more stories about other important people in the book like Isaac Newton, who is buried in the Abbey. (Quality Walking Tours, Golden Tours – leaflet)

‘Ego-targetting’ strategy WE, OUR, US - tourist business YOU, YOUR - receiver/s We’ve also created a brief directory to help you find some of the area’s non-shoe & clothing offerings such as lingerie, whiskey, tea and books. Don’t miss our visit to Mon Plaisir where we enjoyed London’s best French cuisine in a wonderfully charming Gallic ambience, while our article on Traditional pubs will encourage you to join in Britain’s longstanding favourite pastime. (Covent Garden Guide, July 2005:1).

TEXTUAL ASPECTS  Tourist texts for experts in tourism:

essays and articles on economics, marketing and sociology of tourism  Tourist texts oriented to the general public:

leaflets, brochures, flyers, posters, descriptive panels, visitor guides, magazines, travelogues

Tourist texts are produced by:  Tourist Boards  City councils  Private enterprises

Their goal is to promote a given locality, its tourist attractions, services and facilities. Tourist texts may be distributed abroad or made available in the host countries.

Leaflets  giving information about cultural events and describing

places of historical, artistic and geographical interest

Brochures  giving information about cultural events and describing

places of historical, artistic and geographical interest

Flyers  advertising trips and events

Posters  advertising events and artistic performances

Descriptive panels  placed near monuments, areas of geographical interest or

places of worship

Visitor guides and travel guides  available in booklet and brochure format

e.g. Time Out, Lonely Planet, Rough Guide, Insight Compact Guide, Mondadori, De Agostini.

Magazines  Multilingual and monolingual magazines

Travelogues  Tourism-related

columns in newspapers and magazines where ads and descriptive texts alternate.

 A written account in which tourists describe both

positive and negative experiences of their vacation and give advice and information to potential tourists.


Scope of analysis: CULTURAL TOURISM Means of analysis: KEYWORDS

Keyword semantic groups  HISTORY

  

 

century/ies royal James’s Tudor Henry William George Roman medieval Victoria Edward queen king’s Charles history Victorian Mary court wren war eighteenth John James Thomas Georgian gothic fire nineteenth GEOGRAPHY east Thames south north map west UK ARTS artists contemporary art/s style modern statue paintings portrait exhibition/s works architecture collection PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND CITY PLANNING street/s museum gallery/ies tower city’s square house/s room/s building/s entrance bridge hall marble chapel road temple cathedral stone floor place side abbey corner jane church brick centre theatre site dome palace public wing glass LONDON central green area/’s Chelsea city Paul’s Greenwich Westminter Hampstead soho Kensington mile bank London/’s tate Richmond Londoners hill heath SERVICES tube park garden/s pub station rail tour/s shops restaurant/s café traffic market visit walk admission bus

Keywords describe the city from different points of view (artistic, historical, geographical, architectural, urban).

All semantic fields relate to aspects of the English culture. Therefore, these keywords are classified as culture-bound words (or culture-specific items): words that are deeply rooted in the culture of origin

INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS In Tourism, language and culture are closely linked.

As well as being regulated by a code of grammar and syntax rules, the language is above all the means by which a community expresses their thoughts and values, their beliefs, their culture.

The special language of travel guides presents a high frequency of cultural expressions.

Therefore, translating continuous reference background.

tourism requires a to the cultural

Every intercultural aspect has to be taken into thorough consideration.

‘Domesticating’ translation  Lawrence Venuti:

“Domestication is the strategy of making text closely conform to the culture of the language being translated to”. The aim is to prevent the culture of origin from appearing 'exotic' and 'distant' but make the tourist feel himself/herself in a cosier and more familiar context.

Some English and Italian tourist sub-genres differ significantly with regard to CONTENT and STYLE

CONTENT ENGLISH VISITOR GUIDES include information on:  places of cultural and

historical interest  shopping facilities  car and street parking  bus, coach and train services

ITALIAN VISITOR GUIDES focus mainly on:  art  architecture  history

 gastronomy

STYLE ENGLISH TOURIST LANGUAGE  personal and informal style:

imperative, used to invite the reader to visit, explore and enjoy the attractions of a given town, city or village  Impersonal: passive


ITALIAN TOURIST LANGUAGE  impersonal and formal style,

often rendered by passive constructions.  The personal style is reserved to

texts with a dominant appellative function and even then, the reader is usually addressed in the formal second person plural pronoun ‘VOI’.  Vivid, florid descriptions in

evocative, figurative language

Tourist texts fulfil two communicative functions:  Informative:

- provides information - oriented towards the context  Appellative: -for persuasive purposes  -oriented towards the addressee

Examples of appellative imperatives taken from English tourist brochures and leaflets

 Visit the Roman City at Wroxeter.  See the remarkable Iron Bridge itself and explore

seven museums (…)  Discover the delicate art and mistery (…)  Enjoy the unique experience of Granada Studios tour. (…)

Examples of appellative imperatives taken from an Italian tourist brochure:  Preparatevi ad una sensazione di benessere (…).  Lasciatevi catturare dall’essenza di questa terra (…).  Pensate alle Terre di Siena e dimenticatevi tutto il

resto.  Apprestiamoci a visitare quei monumenti e quei palazzi che custodiscono il segreto dei secoli passati. From ‘Acqueantiche.Terre di Siena’

TRANSLATING TOURIST TEXTS FROM ENGLISH INTO ITALIAN The convention is to adhere to the target language style:  English imperatives tend to be translated with

impersonal expressions, unless the target text has a prominent appellative function.  Different regulatory conventions concerning

translation of culture-bound words.




PERSONAL STYLE (imperatives)


 Visit a truly unique

Scottish destination.  Share with us the legacy of

ancient peoples.  Absorb dramatic and

breath-taking scenery.

 La Scozia è una meta

veramente unica.  Qui è possibile condividere

l’eredità degli antichi popoli.  In Scozia è possibile

ammirare scenari maestosi e mozzafiato.

Share with us the legacy of ancient peoples.  Qui è possibile condividere l’eredità degli antichi popoli.  (…) Potrete condividere…  (…) Condividerete…  Condividete…

Peculiar usage of imperatives  Walk along the main street and you’ll see

some magnificent monuments.  Passeggiando lungo la via principale della città,

potrete ammirare alcuni maestosi monumenti.

 Live the history and solve the mistery

within this medieval attraction.  Rivivendo la storia, potrete svelare i misteri

racchiusi in questa attrazione medievale.

CULTURE-BOUND WORDS (1) Monuments, museums, places of worship and historical interest  Westminster Bridge

 Il Ponte di Westminster

 The Tower of London

 La Torre di Londra

 National Museum of Scotland

 Museo Nazionale Scozzese

 St Paul’s Cathedral

 La Cattedrale di St Paul

 St Alfege’s Church

 La Chiesa di St Alfege

 Glamis Castle

 Il Castello di Glamis

CULTURE-BOUND WORDS (2) Associations, clubs, ships, colleges, observatories, shopping centre, theatres, halls, galleries, markets  Old Royal Observatory

 Old Royal Observatory

 Royal Naval College

 Royal Naval College

 Mayflower

 La Mayflower

 Mermaid Theatre

 Mermaid Theatre

 Royal Festival Hall

 La Royal Festival Hall

 Hayward Gallery

 Hayward Gallery

 Old Billingsgate Market

 Old Billingsgate Market

 Royal Society for the

 Royal Society for the

Protection of the Birds  Overgate Shopping Centre

Protection of the Birds  L’Overgate Shopping Centre 2011

Source Text

Target Text

You’re intrigued

Per intrigarti

You’re invigorated

Per darti nuova energia

You’re invited

Ti invitiamo

You’re intrepid

Per farti vivere l’avventura

You’re inspired

Per ispirarti

You’re in tune

Per sintonizzarti

You’re involved

Per farti sentire parte di noi

You’re in awe

Per impressionarti

You will find your invitation to Great Britain to

Il tuo invito in Gran Bretagna è su

Lexical resources for tourist translation

Monolingual Dictionaries  Beaver A. (2005), English Monolingual Dictionaries: A Dictionary of

Travel and Tourism Terminology, Oxford, CAB International  Harris R. and Howard J. (2001), Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and

Hospitality Terms, Global Books & Subscriptions Services  Medlik S. (2003), Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality,

Butterworth-Heinemann A & C Black Publishers  Collins V. R. (2008), The Tourism Society's Dictionary for Tourism

Industry, Oxford, CAB International  Chandra Nigam S. (2007), Dictionary of Tourism, Rajat Publications  Russell J.(2005), Dictionary of Leisure, Travel and Tourism, A&C Black

Bilingual Dictionaries  Bait, M. and Vergallo, L. (2002), Dictionary of tourism:

inglese-italiano, italiano-inglese, Milano, Modern Languages.

On-line Monolingual Dictionaries  Tourism Dictionary online  Travel Industry Dictionary

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