I. The Sumter Crises (April, 1861) • • • •
What was Lincoln’s dilemma at Ft. Sumter, SC? What approach did Lincoln settle upon? What were the consequences of the attack? Evaluate: To what extent was Lincoln successful in dealing with the Sumter Crises?
5.10 Lincoln & the Union To what extent was Abraham Lincoln effective in dealing with the exigencies of war? To what extent can Lincoln be called “The Great Emancipator?”
II. The Border States • Which states were Border States and why where they important? • How did the border states influence Lincoln’s statements and actions?
The Border States—significance • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware (and in 1861, “tear away” W. Virginia) • Slave-holding states that might have seceded if Lincoln had fired the first shot • Contained white pop. nearly half entire Confederacy • Industrialized—Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri would nearly double manufacturing capacity of South • Ohio River, Cumberland & Tennessee tributaries, were key supply lines for the Confederacy (grain, gunpowder, iron).
Lincoln’s policy toward the Border States • Declared martial law in Maryland; sent in troops to ML, W.VA, MO • Declared publically: War to save Union, not end slavery and emancipate blacks
III. Strengths & Weaknesses • At the outbreak of the war, what advantages did the South have and what advantages did the North have? • Evaluate: What advantage proved most important to each side? • What were the disadvantages of each side? • Evaluate: Which disadvantage proved most troublesome to each side?
Southern advantages • Strategic: Could fight a defensive war; did not have to win to earn independence • Moral: fighting for self-determination, preservation of way of life • Military: – Talented commanding officers (Lee, Jackson) – Southern men “bred to fight”—rebel yell
• Economic – King Cotton, one big farm
Southern disadvantages • Economic – Scarcity of factories • Compensated by seizing federal weapons, ran blockades, developed ironworks • Still, shortages of shoes, uniforms, blankets
– Supply • Fewer railroads, limited supply lines food shortages
• Constitutional – Borrowed heavily from Union w/one important defect: could not deny future secession of constituent states – At first, trouble getting states to fight outside their own borders (GA especially belligerent)
Northern Advantages • Economic – Agrarian and Industrial • ¾ the nation’s wealth; ¾ the nation’s 30k (m) railroads
– Supply • Controlled the sea, traded grain to Europe for munitions and supplies
• Demographics – 22 million (vs. 9 million, including 3.5 million slaves) – Heavy immigration: 800k from 1861-1865 made up 1/5 of Union forces
Northern disadvantages • Military: – Ordinary soldiers less experienced – Commanding officers less brilliant (command by trail-and-error)
IV. Foreign Support • Why did the South believe they would be able to enlist foreign intervention and why were they unable to do so? • What incidents threatened peaceful relations between the Union and Britain?
Southern hope of foreign support • South counted on European support – European aristocrats sympathetic; people were not (influence of Uncle Tom’s Cabin)
• South knew that Britain depending on cotton, 75% of total supply – However, 1857-1860 Britain stockpiled a surplus; later relied on Northern charity, blockade running, Indian/Egyptian imports – King Cotton defeated by King Grain and Corn • McCormick’s mechanical reaper allowed North to relieve bad British harvests
European conflicts—Britain • Trent Affair (1861) • Union warship forcibly removes two Confederate diplomats from British mail steamer • Lincoln: “One war at a time” • Alabama (1862-1864) • “Commerce raider” built in Britain and manned by Brits exploited loophole by picking up guns in the Caribbean • Captured 60+ (250 in all) Northern vessels, crippling the merchant marine, before Charles Francis Adams convinced Britain to cease production • Laird Rams (1863) • Minister Adams took a hard line: “this is war” if released • Agreed to submit Alabama dispute to arbitration (ended up paying $15/5 million)
European conflicts, other • Canada – Confederate raids vs. Irish “green shirt” raids (1866-1870) – Dominion of Canada established in 1867 • France – Napolean gambles on Southern victory, established “puppet” Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico. – Took a “French leave” in 1867; Maximillian deposed and killed by firing squad.
V. Economic impact • How did the war impact the economy in the North and the economy in the South?
Northern fundraising • Excise taxes on tobacco, alcohol • First national income tax • Customs duties via Morrill Tariff Act—moderate to high (key part of Republican platform) • Union “greenbacks” inadequately backed by gold, fluctuated with every victory/loss • Most significant fund-raiser: T-bonds through Jay Cooke and Company • National Banking System (1863) stimulated sale of bonds, established common bank-note currency
• Northern factories (industrialization): – First millionaire class, Captains of Industry – war profiteering – mechanical reapers
Southern woes • Blockade and destruction: 30% of nation’s wealth in 1860 12% (1870) • Transportation (railroads) collapsed
Processing • Evaluate: To what extent was President Lincoln effective in dealing with the exigencies of the war?
Activator • Evaluate Lincoln’s wartime policies and accomplishments: Admirable/Effective
Policy Navigating the Ft. Sumter Crises Dealing with the border states Protecting civil liberties and upholding the Constitution
Military strategy Freeing the slaves Preserving the Union
Lincoln and the War • Without Congress in session, boldly declared blockade – (later upheld by Supreme Court) • Increased size of federal army – something only Congress can do (Art. I, Sec. VIII, para.12). • (Congress later approved)
• Directed Treasury to advance $2 million to military – only Congress can control the purse (Art. I, Sec IX, para7).
• Suspended Habeas Corpus: – Held people in jail without proving just cause (violation of Art. I, Sec. IX, para 2 • “Supervised voting” in border states—intimidated voters had to pass armed troops to vote • Shut down newspapers in Washington DC (violation of 1st amendment)
• VI: To what extent were Lincoln’s abridgements of civil liberties justified?
Doc Analysis A and B • Close reading & Corroboration: – Doc A: • According to the quotation above, what does Lincoln want the American people to do?
– Doc B: • How much time passed between when Lincoln made the quotation in document 1 and the one in document 2? • According to document 2, why did Lincoln’s views on race change from when he spoke in New York (document 1)?
Doc Analysis C-E • Close Reading & Corroboration – Doc C: • What does Lincoln describe as his main goal in fighting the war? • What does he say is his "personal" wish?
– Doc D: • According to the Emancipation Proclamation, under what circumstances would slaves be set free?
– Doc E: • What is the main purpose of The Thirteenth Amendment?
Processing • To what extent should Lincoln be considered “The Great Emancipator”?