Linking Paragraphs

January 18, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Performing Arts, Drama
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Linking Paragraphs Year 8 Sentence Starters Icons key:

For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation

Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Extension activities 11 of of 24

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Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Learning Objectives In this unit you will… Learn how to begin paragraphs with conjunctions, speech, adverbial clauses, adverbs, statements and rhetorical questions Understand how to develop paragraphs by describing the setting, a character’s psychology and by leading up to a significant point Be taught how to link paragraphs with pronouns, connectives, temporal connectives and repetition Analyse some excerpts to see how writers develop and link paragraphs Practise opening, developing and linking your own paragraphs. 22 of of 24

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Introduction Hey Max, can you help me? I’ve been really busy writing a story about a cute girl who is in love with an intelligent boy. But he doesn’t even know that she exists…! How can I keep my readers hooked until the unhappy ending?

Wow Lei, that sounds gripping! Unrequited love does make a good tragedy. You could vary the way that you open, develop and link your paragraphs for maximum drama… 3 of 24

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Opening paragraphs Are you confident opening and developing paragraphs in fiction? Can you think of any techniques authors use to link paragraphs? Find a fiction book and have a look at how the first few paragraphs start. Compare your findings with a partner.

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Ways of opening paragraphs When writing non-fiction we often use a topic sentence (a sentence which introduces the topic the paragraph will be about) to begin a paragraph. Fiction gives you a bit more flexibility over how to begin your paragraphs. There are many ways to begin paragraphs in fictional writing. For example: initial conjunctions speech adverbial clauses adverbs statements questions 5 of 24

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Opening paragraphs anagrams

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Beginning with a conjunction There are a variety of ways you can open a paragraph when you are writing fiction. Here are some examples: And in this way, talking and wrangling and splashing through the rivers, they made their first march to a sort of receiving camp for the new elephants. from The Jungle Book: Toomai of the Elephants, Rudyard Kipling, 1894

Beginning with a conjunction connects this paragraph to a previous one.

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Beginning with a speech “I, Mrs Mann. We name our fondlings in alphabetical order. The last was a S,--Swubble, I named him. This was a T,--Twist, I named him.” From Oliver Twist, Charles Dickens, 1867

A speech shows how a character behaves around others.

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Beginning with an adverbial clause One day, after they had made the porridge for their breakfast, and poured it into their porridge-pots, they walked out into the wood… from Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Robert Southey, 1837

Starting with an adverbial clause provides background detail. Adverbial clause

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Beginning with an adverb Suddenly, through the storm’s rage, within the chaos of roaring sound, it was possible to hear a human voice raised in shrieking terror. from © Witch Child, Celia Rees, Bloomsbury, 2001

Using an adverb instantly sets the atmosphere.

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Beginning with a statement November, December, and half of January passed away. Christmas and the New Year had been celebrated at Gateshead with the usual festive cheer… from Jane Eyre, Charlotte Bronte, 1847

A statement provides detail in a direct manner. It can be a useful way of making the narrator’s opinion known.

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Beginning with a rhetorical question “Can one be well while suffering morally?...” said Anna Pavlovna. from War and Peace (Book 5), Leo Tolstoy, 1807

Beginning with a rhetorical question grabs the attention of the readers.

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Identify opening techniques

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Developing paragraphs There are three main ways to develop a fictional paragraph: 1. Describe the setting One straightforward way is to look at things in terms of geography. In other words, the character or the narrator describes what they see as they see it. 2. Describe the character’s psychology Another way to develop a descriptive paragraph is to think about what would seem important to the character in your story; the character’s psychology determines the content of the descriptive paragraph.

3. Lead up to a significant point Often the writer will begin with minor details and lead up to the most significant point. 14 of 24

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Describing the setting In the paragraph below the writer describes the setting of the Sea King’s realm. In the deepest spot of all, stands the castle of the Sea King. Its walls are built of coral, and the long gothic windows are of the clearest amber. The roof is formed of shells that open and close as the water flows over them. Their appearance is very beautiful, for in each lies a glittering pearl, which would be fit for the diadem of a queen. from The Little Mermaid, Hans Christian Andersen, 1872

Now draw a picture of the Sea King’s castle. 15 of 24

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Describing the character’s psychology In the paragraph below a young man called Maan is told to get married. Marriage was the last thing on Maan’s mind; he had caught a friend’s eye in the crowd and was waving to him. Hundreds of small coloured lights strung through the hedge came on all at once, and the silk saris and the jewellery of the women glimmered and glinted even more brightly. The high, reedy, shehnai music burst into a pattern of speed and brilliance. Maan was entranced. He noticed Lata making her way through the guests. Quite an attractive girl, Savita’s sister, he thought. Not very tall and not very fair, but attractive with an oval face, a shy light in her dark eyes... from © A Suitable Boy by Vikram Seth, Weidenfeld & Nicolson a division of the Orion Publishing Group, 1994

Write down three things that you know about Maan. 16 of 24

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Leading up to a significant point Maan is being watched here by an unknown man. How does the writer create tension so that we know something is going to happen? Maan was left in the courtyard flagged with grey stone; the porter climbed the flight of stairs and disappeared once again. It was late afternoon, and the heat was intense in this paved and walled oven. Maan looked around him. There was no sign of the porter or Firoz or Imtiaz or anyone. Then he detected a slight movement in one of the windows above. A rustic, middle-aged, well-fleshed man with a grey-and-white walrus moustache was examining him from the upper window. from © A Suitable Boy by Vikram Seth, Weidenfeld & Nicolson a division of the Orion Publishing Group, 1994

Write down three ways the writer creates tension. 17 of 24

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Linking paragraphs Here are some helpful ways of linking paragraphs together: 1. Pronouns One way to link paragraphs is to refer back to someone or something in an earlier paragraph by using pronouns. 2. Connectives/Temporal connectives Another way to link paragraphs is to use connectives (including conjunctions) to show time, place or cause and effect. Temporal connectives help to show how periods of time have passed.

3. Repetition You can also link paragraphs by repeating words, phrases and ideas to create rhythmic and narrative echoes. 18 of 24

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Pronouns After you have developed a paragraph, it is important to link it smoothly to the next paragraph to guide your reader. One way of linking paragraphs together is to use pronouns (he, she, it etc.) to refer back to someone or something. Look at the opening paragraphs of this fairytale: High above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince. He was gilded all over with thin leaves of fine gold, for eyes he had two bright sapphires, and a large red ruby glowed on his sword-hilt. He was very much admired indeed. “He is as beautiful as a weathercock,” remarked one of the Town Councillors... from The Happy Prince, Oscar Wilde, 1888

What is the purpose of this pronoun? 19 of 24

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Connectives Paragraphs can also be linked with connectives to show time, place or cause and effect, e.g.

“It is a ridiculous attachment,” twittered the other Swallows; “she has no money, and far too many relations”; and indeed the river was quite full of Reeds. Then, when the autumn came they all flew away. After they had gone he felt lonely, and began to tire of his lady-love. “She has no conversation,” he said, “and I am afraid that she is a coquette, for she is always flirting with the wind.” And certainly, whenever the wind blew… Then he saw the statue on the tall column. from The Happy Prince, Oscar Wilde, 1888

Do these connectives make links through time, place or cause and effect? 20 of 24

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Temporal connectives Temporal connectives are a useful way of linking paragraphs together and developing a story by showing how a lot of time has passed, e.g. “That is because you have done a good action,” said the Prince. And the little Swallow began to think, and then he fell asleep. Thinking always made him sleepy. When day broke he flew down to the river and had a bath… When the moon rose he flew back to the Happy Prince. “Have you any commissions for Egypt?” he cried; “I am just starting.” from The Happy Prince, Oscar Wilde, 1888

Can you think of any other temporal connectives? 21 of 24

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Repetition Writers also use repetition as a way of linking events. The repetition can be individual words, phrases or ideas, e.g.

“I am covered with fine gold,” said the Prince, “you must take it off, leaf by leaf, and give it to my poor; the living always think that gold can make them happy.” Leaf after leaf of the fine gold the Swallow picked off, till the Happy Prince looked quite dull and grey. Leaf after leaf of the fine gold he brought to the poor, and the children’s faces grew rosier, and they laughed and played games in the street. “We have bread now!” they cried. from The Happy Prince, Oscar Wilde, 1888

Repetition also links the paragraphs through rhythmic echoes. 22 of 24

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Paragraphs revision activity

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Writing a series of paragraphs Write a series of paragraphs using the photo below as a starting point. Remember to vary the way you open, develop and link your paragraphs to maintain the interest of your readers.

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