Luckhnow Pact

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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First decade of 20th century was bit peaceful Muslim youth was charged Annulment of Partition of Bangal Kanpur Masjid’s incident 1913 Refusal of establishing Muslim university Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim league in 1913 after that he started to work for Hindu Muslim unity, understanding and for co-operation In 1915, the annual meeting of congress and Muslim league at Bombay ,second meeting at Lucknow In 1916 a written agreement were signed between two parties which in history of sub-continent is called Lucknow Pact.

The then Muslim Youth 3

Why was the Lucknow pact made? 4

AIML was a moderate organization with its basic aim to establish friendly relations with the Crown After Annulment of the partition of Bengal, the Muslim leadership decided to change its stance The Muslim League changed its major objective and decided to join hands with the Congress in order to put pressure on the British government Lord Chelmsford's invitation for suggestions from the Indian politicians for post World War I reforms further helped in the development of the situation

Why Signed 5

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considerable change of policy for the AIML (that to preserve Muslim interests in India, it needed to support British rule) After the unpopular partition of Bengal, the Muslim League was confused about its stand and it was at this time that Jinnah approached the League Jinnah was the mastermind and architect of the pact The Lucknow Pact also marked the establishment of cordial relations between the two prominent groups of the Indian National Congress - the bold, fierce leaders led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and the moderates led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Main Points 6

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There shall be self-government in India Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded joint electorates A system of weightage to minority political representation should be adopted The number of the members of Central Legislative Council should be increased to 150

At the provincial level, four-fifth of the members of the Legislative Councils should be elected and one-fifth should be nominated The size of provincial legislatures should not be less than 125 in the major provinces and from 50 to 75 in the minor provinces

Cont… 7 o


All members, except those nominated, should be elected directly on the basis of adult franchise No bill concerning a community should be passed if the bill is opposed by three-fourth of the members of that community in the Legislative Council


The term of the Legislative Council should be five years


Members of Legislative Council should themselves elect their president



Half of the members of Executive Council should be Indians and The same method should be adopted for the Executive Councils of Governors The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian funds


Of the two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian


The Executive should be separated from the Judiciary

What was accepted ! 8

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Separate electorate were accepted by congress The congress agreed to enforce separate electorate in those province, where they do not exist (Punjab, CP) No bill affecting a particular community should be proceeded with any counsel if 3/4 representation of community opposed it Muslims and Hindus were to have the weightage in the provinces where they formed minorities

Impact of the Pact - Praised 9

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Symbolized Hindu Muslim unity. Congress and League demanded self govt Govt could not easily reject the demand for constitutional reforms Lucknow Session of the Congress- Extremists and the Moderate Congressmen were reconciled Tilak became the most popular politician in the country Home Rule Movement gave new momentum to National Movement.

Results 10

Hindu Muslim unity did not last for more than eight years, and collapsed after Khilafat Movement It was the first time that the Congress recognized the Muslim League as the political party representing the Muslims of the region The pact brought about a change, temporary although, in the attitude of the Muslims towards the "Hindu Congress". It also made their relations with the British hostiles Chief architect of this pact was Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Ms.Sarojini Naidu

Impact- Criticized 11

The Congress failed to retain its secular character by agreeing to a scheme of communal electorate Besides this scheme provided for Muslim representation in the council in excess of their proportion in the total population The compromise demanded more sacrifice on the part of the Hindus. This marked the beginning of appeasement of Muslims by Congress By the acceptance of separate electorates for Muslims, the Congress paved the way for future communal tension The scheme did not involve either the masses of Hindus or Muslims,It was an agreement at the level of leadership

Effects 12

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Completely approval of separate electorate Security of Muslim rights and interest Muslim league's separate status accepted Increase the fame of Quaid-e-Azam as ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity Start of Hindu Muslim Unity, First and Last time ?


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Lucknow pact proved to be the bacon light on the political horizon of India Politics of Reconciliation If this sense of co-operation have been carried out the atmosphere of understanding and co-operation generated but hindu did not honestly stick to these principles instead of it mistrust hatred and noncooperation carried into political life It was an important milestone in the history of subcontinent, due to this agreement congress gave protection to all due rights of Muslims and Muslim league

The Quaid 14


Of Ms.Naidoo 16

He is a future Viceroy if this policy of Indianization continues "the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity"

To The god Of Pain 17

Unwilling priestess in thy cruel fane Long hast thou held me, pitiless god of Pain, I have no more to give, all that was mine Is laid, a wrested tribute, at thy shrine; Let me depart, for my whole soul is wrung, And all my cheerless orisons are sung; Let me depart, with faint limbs let me creep To some dim shade and sink me down to sleep

Naido and Quaid 18


Heads of State and Government  

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India Zakir Hussain President 1967-1969 India Mohammad Hamid Ansari Vice President 2010- Till Date Pakistan Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan 1947-1951 Pakistan Khawaja Nazimuddin 1951-1953 Pakistan Ayub Khan 1958-1969 (didn't completed his degree) Pakistan Fazal Elahi Chaudhry President 1973-1978 Bangladesh Muhammad Mansur Ali PM 1975-Aug. 1975

Politicians •

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Abdur Rab Nishtar,Pakistani Politician,former Minister for communication in Pakistan and Governor of Punjab, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, freedom fighter, also known as Frontier Gandhi Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat (1901–1978), jurist and politician, first Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan (1972–77 Khawaja Nazimuddin, former Prime minister of Malik Ghulam Muhammad,Governor General of. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, founder of the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party, Ex-CM Sheikh Abdullah, Prime minister of Kashmir and later served as CM of Kashmir

Celebrities Gulgee, artist and Islamic calligrapher Ibn-e-Safi, 1926–1980, novelist, migrated to Pakistan in1951 Ishwari Prasad, historian, first graduate of MAO College Javed Akhtar, Lyricist and Scriptwriter (Sholay) Mukhtar Masood, Urdu writer, Pakistani bureaucrat Mushtaq Ahmad Yusufi, Urdu humorist Naseeruddin Shah, Hindi/Urdu film actor Zubeida, Film actress (First Indian talkie-Alam Ara fame)



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