LYMPHATICSYSTEMANDIMMUNITY

January 29, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Immunology
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Download LYMPHATICSYSTEMANDIMMUNITY...

Description

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER 16

• HOW DOES IT TIE IN TO THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM? • CIRCULATES BODY FLUIDS BACK TO THE BLOOD • WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF IT DIDN’T?

LYMPHATIC PATHWAYS • LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES

www.cayuga-cc.edu

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES • HOW DO THEY DIFFER FROM BLOOD CAPILLARIES? • PARALLEL BLOOD CAPILLARIES • SIMILAR STRUCTURE • MORE FLUID EXITS CAPILLARIES ON ARTERIOLE SIDE THAN REABSORBED ON VENULE SIDE • INTERSTITIAL FLUID ENTERS= LYMPH • CELLS OVERLAP, AREN’T ATTACHED SO PROTIENS AND OTHER MATERIAL ENTERS WHEN PRESSURE INCREASES • FUNCTION OF LACTEALS? • GO TO LYMPHATIC VESSELS

student.ccbcmd.edu

• HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE FORCES LYMPH IN • PROTEIN ATTACHMENT FIBERS ? • HOW DOES LYMPH FLOW THROUGH THE VESSELS? – LIKE VEINS: • SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION • CONTRACTION OF RESPIRATORY MUSCLES • CONTRACTION OF SMOOTH MUSCLE IN LYMPH VESSELS • VALVES

www.jdaross.mcmail.com

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES

www.cayuga-cc.edu

LYMPHATIC VESSELS • STRUCTURE SIMILAR TO VEINS/ THINNER • SAME 3 LAYERS ? • SEMILUNAR VALVES ?

student.ccbcmd.edu

LYMPHATIC TRUNKS • LYMPHATIC VESSELS DRAIN INTO LYMPHATIC TRUNKS • NAMED FOR REGIONS THEY DRAIN • JOIN THE COLLECTING TRUNKS: • THORACIC DUCT – LARGER AND LONGER – FROM ABDOMINAL REGION TO LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN – DRAINS INTESTINAL, LUMBAR, INTERCOSTAL TRUNKS, LEFT SUBCLAVIAN, LEFT JUGULAR, & LEFT BRONCHOMEDIASTINAL TRUNKS • RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT – RIGHT THORAX TO RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN • TO PLASMA

www.cayuga-cc.edu

student.ccbcmd.edu

student.ccbcmd.edu

student.ccbcmd.edu

www.cayuga-cc.edu

LYMPH FLOW • FLUID MOVEMENT FROM CAPILLARIES TO INTERSTITIAL FLUID TO LYMPH IS USUALLY BALANCED • OBSTRUCTION OF FLOW LEADS TO ? – EDEMA

LYMPH NODES • USUALLY AFTER LYMPH VESSELS • ~1IN; BEAN SHAPED; HILUM; CAPSULE FORMS; LYMPH NODULES/FOLLICLES • AFFERENT LYMPH VESSELS ENTER AT VARIOUS AREAS ALONG CAPSULE • EFFERENT VESSLES EXIT AT HILUM

www.cayuga-cc.edu

LYMPH NODULES • CONTAIN B LYMPHOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES TO FIGHT INVADING PATHOGENS WHY IN LYMPH NODES? • SOME LYMPH NODULES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH OTHER SYSTEMS: – TONSILS – PEYER’S PATCHES: M CELLS (MICROFOLD) PICK UP ATIGENS FROM LUMEN OF SMALL INTESTINE AND BY TANSCYTOSIS 9VESSICLE MEDIATED) TRANSFER IT TO OTHER DENDRITIC CELLS AND T LYMPHOCYTES • LYMPH SINUSES PROVIDE PATHWAY FOR LYMPH TO CIRCULATE

student.ccbcmd.edu

LYMPH NODE

en.wikipedia.org

Structure of the lymph node. 1. Afferent lymphatic vessel 2. Sinus 3. Nodule 4. Capsule 5. Medulla 6. Valve to prevent backflow 7. Efferent lymphatic vessel.

student.ccbcmd.edu

LOCATIONS OF LYMPH NODES • CERVICAL • AXILLARY • SUPRATROCHLEAR: MEDIAL SIDE OF ELBOW • INGUINAL • PELVIC • ABDOMINAL • THORACIC

LYMPH NODE FUNCTION • FILTERING HARMFUL MATERIAL • IMMUNE SURVEILLANCE: LYMPHOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES

www.cayuga-cc.edu

www.cayuga-cc.edu

THYMUS • BILOBED; CAPSULE; MEDIASTINUM; ANTERIOR TO AORTIC ARCH; POSTERIOR TO STERNUM;TO PERICARDIUM • SHRINKS WITH AGE; ADIPOSE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE FILLS IN • CONNECTIVE TISSUE FROM CAPSULE FORMS LOBULES • LOBULES CONTAIN LYMPHOCYTES (MARROW) MATURE INTO T LYMPHOCYTES DUE TO HORMONES THYMOSINS SECRETED BY EPITHELIAL CELLS OF THYMUS

student.ccbcmd.edu

SPLEEN • LARGEST LYMPHATIC ORGAN • UPPER LEFT ABDOMEN; INFERIOR TO DIAPHRAGM; ANTERIOR TO STOMACH • STRUCTURE SIMILAR TO LYMPH NODES; HILUM FOR BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES; • VENOUS SINUSES FILLED WITH BLOOD

PULP • WHITE PULP – TINY ISLANDS; SPLENIC NODULES PACKED WITH LYMPHOCYTES • RED PULP – REST OF LOBULES; SURROUND VENOUS SINUSES; CONTAINS RBCs, LYMPHOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES • CAPILLARIES OF RED PULP PERMEABLE: ALLOW RBCs TO PASS AND DAMAGED RBCs RUPTURE AND MACROPHAGES REMOVE DEBRIES • MACROPHAGES DESTROY PATHOGENS • LYMPHOCYTES DEFEND AGAINST INFECTIONS • SPLEEN FILTERS BLOOD

SPLEEN

SPLEEN

en.wikipedia.org/

SPLEEN

mywebpages.comcast.net

SPLEEN

mywebpages.comcast.net

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img338.imageshack.us/img338/6852/bitencaca8qz.jpg&imgrefurl=http://

/www.stayinginshape.com

BODY DEFENSES • PATHOGENS: – BACTERIA; PROTOZOA; FUNGI; – VIRUSES

• INFECTION DOESN’T ALWAYS HAVE SYMPTOMS • INNATE/NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES • ADAPTIVE/ SPECIFIC DEFENSES

INNATE DEFENSES • • • • • • •

SPECIES RESISTANCE MECHANCIAL BARRIERS CHEMICAL BARRIERS NATURAL KILLER CELLS INFLAMMATION PHAGOCYTOSIS FEVER

SPECIES RESISTANCE • A SPECIES CAN’T GET CERTAIN DISEASES ? – DON’T HAVE THE RECEPTORS; OR DON’T HAVE CORRECT TEMPERATURE OR CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT;

FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE MECHANICAL BARRIERS • SKIN – SLOUGHS OFF REMOVING BACTERIA

• MUCOUS MEMBRANES – CILLIATED EPITHELIUM

• HAIRS TRAP INFECTIOUS AGENTS • SWEAT, MUCUS, TEARS, SALIVA, AND URINE WASH AWAY PATHOGENS

SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE • CHEMICAL BARRIERS • ENZYMESGASTRIC – JUICE: PEPSIN & HCl – TEARS: LYSOSOMES – HCl – SALT – INTERFERRONS • HORMONELIKE PEPTIDES PRODUCED BY LYMPJHOCYTES OR FIBROBLASTS VS. VIRUSES AND TUMOR CELLS • HELP TO BLOCK THE REPRODUCTION OF VIRUSES • STIMULATE PHAGOCYTES AND OTHER CELLS TO RESIST INFECTION AND HINDER THE GROWTH OF TUMORS

• DEFENSINS – PEPTIDES MADE BY GRANULOCYTES OF INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM – GENES ACTIVATED BY SOME ANTIGENS OR VIRUSES FORM DEFENSINS – SOME MAKE HOLES IN CELL WALLS AND MEMBRANES

• COLLECTINS – PROTEINS VS. BACTERIA, VIRUSES AND YEASTS – ATTACK THE DIFFERENT SUGARS ON PATHOGEN MEMBRANES MAKING IT MORE EASILY PHAGOCYTIZED

• COMPLEMENT SYSTEM: – GROUP OF PROTEINS IN FLUIDS REACT AS A CASCADE – BY ONE OF 2 PATHWAYS • CLASSICAL – ATTACHES TO ANTIBODY ATTACHED TO AN ANTIGEN

• ALTERNATE – EXPOSURE TO ANTIGENS WITHOUT ANTIBODIES

– STIMULATES INFLAMMATION ATTRACTS AND ENHANCES PHAGOCYTES

student.ccbcmd.edu

NATURAL KILLER CELLS • T LYMPHOCYTES • VS. CANCER CELLS AND VIRUSES • RELEASE PERFORINS ?

INFLAMMATION • REDNESS, SWELLING, HEAT AND PAIN – HOW? • DUE TO PATHOGENS (MAINLY); HEAT, UV, ACIDS, BASES • WHITE BLOOD CELLS INCREASE: – FIRST ? – MONOCYTES BECOME MACROPHAGES – PUS ? • EXUDATE: WITH CLOTTING FACTORS RELEASE FIBRIN



FIBROBLASTS WALL OFF AREA TO INHIBIT SPREAD OF PATHOGENS/TOXINS

PHAGOCYTOSIS • MOSTLY NEUTROPHILS AND MONOCYTES DIFFERENCE? • CHEMOTAXIS ? • MONOCYTES  MACROPHAGES: FREE OR FIXED ? • MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC SYSTEM/RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM

student.ccbcmd.edu

FEVER • BODY TEMP CONTROLLED BY ? • SO WHAT CHANGES TO ALLOW FEVER? • VIRAL OR BACTERIAL INFECTION CAUSES LYMPHOCYTES TO RELEASE INTERLEUKIN 1/ ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN RAISES SET POINT • HIGHER TEMP CUASES LIVER AND SPLEEN TO HOLD IRON SO BACTERIA AND FUNGI CAN’T GROW • PHAGOCYTES ARE MORE ACTIVE ?

student.ccbcmd.edu

ADAPTIVE DEFENSE (SPECIFIC) • THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE: IMMUNITY – A RESISTANCE TO SPECIFIC PATHOGENS OR TOXINS AND OTHER BY-PRODUCTS

• MUST DETERMINE SELF AND NONSELF ANTIGENS

ANTIGENS • PROTEINS, POLYSACCHARIDES, GLYCOPROTIENS, OR GLYCOLIPIDS • BEFORE BIRTH SELF ANTIGENS ARE RECOGNIZED • LARGE AND COMPLEX CAUSE MORE RESPONSE • HAPTENS – SMALL MOLECULE THAT MAY CAUSE A RESPONSE WHEN COMBINED WITH A LARGER COMPOUND • DRUGS, DUST, DANDER, CHEMICALS

LYMPHOCYTE PRODUCTION • DURING FETAL DEVELOPMENT UNSPECIALIZED LYMPHOCYTES RELEASED TO BLOOD • HALF GO TO THYMUS AND THYMOSINS MATURE THE T LYMPHOCYTES • MOST OF LYMPHOCYTES IN BLOOD • REST MATURE IN MARROW  B LYMPHOCYTES • BOTH FOUND IN LYMPH NODES, SPLEEN, INTESTINAL LINING • BOTH ARE CLONED FROM ORIGINAL VARIETY CELL; EACH ONE HAS A ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SO ONLY RESPONDS TO A SPECIFIC ANTIGEN • B CELLS PRODUCE ANTIBODIES; T CELLS INTERACT DIRECTLY

T CELL RESPONSE • ACTIVATED BY ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELL LIKE SOME MACROPHAGES AND B CELLS • PHAGOCYTE DIGESTS BACTERIA ?, SOME OF ANTIGEN TRAVELS OUT TO MAJOR HISTOCAMPATABILITY COMPLEX (MHC) (HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGENS/HLA) • FOUND ON ALL CELL MEMBRANES BUT RBCs (CLASS I) OR ON SURFACE OF ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS, THYMUS CELLS AND ACTIVATED T CELLS (CLASS II)

student.ccbcmd.edu

• MHC ANTIGENS HELP T CELLS RECOGNIZE FOREIGN ANTIGENS • CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE: – ACTIVATED T CELLS REACT DIRECTLY WITH ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELL • T CELLS ALSO SECRETE POLYPEPTIDES: CYTOKINES: – INTERLEUKIN 1: ACTIVATES T CELLS; STIMULATES THEM TO RELEASE CYTOKINES – INTERLEUKIN 2: T CELL PROLIFERATION; STIMULATES T CELLS TO RELEASE CYTOKINES – CFSs STIMULATE BONE MARROW TO PRODUCE LYMPHOCYTES; CAUSE B CELLS TO GROW AND MATURE; ACTIVATE MACROPHAGES – INTERFERONS – TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR: STOPS TUMOR GROWTH, CAUSES FEVER; STIMULATES LYMPHOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION; RELEASES GROWTH FACTORS – ALSO RELEASE TOXINS TO KILL ANTIGEN BEARING CELLS, AND GROWTH INHIBITING FACTORS

HELPER T CELLS • ONCE ACTIVATED, STIMULATES B CELL TO PRODUCE ANTIBODIES VS. THE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN

CYTOTOXIC T CELL • RECOGNIZES ANTIGENS OF CANCEROUS CELLS OR VIRALLY INFECTED CELLS • ACTIVATED BY CYTOKINES FROM HELPER T CELL • THEY CLONE: PROLIFERATE • BIND TO ANTIGEN BEARING CELL AND RELEASE PERFORIN

MEMORY T CELLS • FROM CD8 T CELLS (CYTOTOXIC) • FOR FUTURE PROTECTION • CD8 T CELL CONTAQCTS ANTIGEN BEARING CELL IT FORMS A DUMBELL SHAPE – DIVIDES: ONE CELL BECOMES ACTIVE CYTOTOXIC CELL OTHER SIDE BECOMES A MEMORY T CELL • DURING SECOND INFECTION THIS CELL DIVIDES INTO CYTOTOXIC CELLS

B CELLS HUMONAL RESPONSE • USUALLY ACTIVATED BY HELPER T CELL BUT SOME ARE DIRECTLY ACTIVATED (ANTIGEN) • WHEN B CELL ATTACHES TO ANTIGEN HELPER T CELL RELEASES CYTOKINES – STIMULATE PROLIFERATION OF B CELL – ATTRACT MACROPHAGES AND LEUKOCYTES • SOME OF THE B CELLS BECOME MEMORY CELLS

• SOME BECOME PLASMA CELLS – PRODUCE ANTIBODIES/ IMMUNOGLOBULINS – HAVE A LOT OF GA – 2,000 ANTIBODIES/MINUTE – CAN ONLY PRODUCE ONE TYPE OF ANTIBODY – POLYCLONAL RESPONSE: MORE THAN ONE ANTIGEN ?

• T CELLS CAN RELEASE CYTOKINES TO INHIBIT B CELL FUNCTION

student.ccbcmd.edu

http://www.biokemi.org/assets/302/symphogen_02bg.jpg

student.ccbcmd.edu

ANTIBODIES • • • •

GAMMA GLOBULINS SOLUBLE, GLOBULAR PROTIENS 4 AMINO ACID CHAINS- DISULFIDE BONDS 2 IDENTICAL LIGHT CHAINS AND 2 IDENTICAL HEAVY CHAINS • 5 DIFFERENT HEAVY CHAINS= 5 DIFFERENT ANTIBODIES • SPECIFIC SHAPE GIVES PHYSIOLOGY • VARIABLE REGIONS FIT ANTIGEN

• ANTIGEN BINDING SITE FORMS AROUND ANTIGEN AND IDIOTYPES IS PART THAT BINDS • REST IS CONSTANT REGION: BINDS TO CELL SRUCTURES OR CHEMICALS

IMMUNOGLOBULINS • IgG: – 80%; PLASMA AND TISSUE FLUID; VS. BACTERIA, VIRUSES AND TOXINS; ACTIVATES COMPLEMENT; ANTI-Rh

• IgA: – 13%; EXOCRINE SECRETIONS: BREAST MILK, TEARS, NASAL FLUID, GASTRIC JUICE, INTESTINAL JUICE, BILE, URINE; VS. BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

• IgM: – 6%; IN PLASMA; VS. FOOD, BACTERIA; ACTIVATES COMPLEMENT; ANTI-A/ANTIB;

• IgD: –
View more...

Comments

Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.
SUPPORT NANOPDF