Maatschappelijke Innovatie 2013-2014

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Business, Economics
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Maatschappelijke Innovatie 2013-2014 Sociaal Ondernemerschap: schets van het veld Niels Bosma Stefan Panhuijsen (Social Enterprise NL) Sandra Ballij (ctaste)

Recap: Sociaal ondernemen en maatschappelijke innovatie Sociaal ondernemen

Maatschappelijke innovatie

Reikwijdte

Onderneming

Maatschappelijk probleem

Accent

Koppeling financiële en maatschappelijke waarde

Innovatieve aanpak

•  Boek: focus op maatschappelijke innovatie •  Dit college: focus op sociaal ondernemen

Vandaag •  Economisch perspectief –  Begripsbepaling –  Economische relevantie •  Positieve externaliteiten •  Economisch surplus •  Instituties & marktfalen

•  Social Enterprises in Nederland – Stefan Panhuijsen (Social Enterprise NL) •  Social Entrepreneurs: Sandra Ballij (ctaste)

•  “Social enterprises are, by definition, social in their ends and means: their primary objective is to achieve social impact rather than generate profits for owners and stakeholders”

Belang van begripsbepaling voor theoretische ontwikkeling

Bron: Christensen, C.M. & Sundahl, D.M. (2001). The process of building theory. Mimeo, Harvard Business School

Andere definities Dees (1998) Social entrepreneurs play the role of change agents in the social sector, by: • Adopting a mission to create and sustain social value (not just private value), • Recognizing and relentlessly pursuing new opportunities to serve that mission, • Engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation, and learning, • Acting boldly without being limited by resources currently in hand, and • Exhibiting heightened accountability to the constituencies served and for the outcomes created.

Santos (2012): “Social entrepreneurs provide a distributed mechanism for society to identify neglected problems with positive externalities, develop innovative solutions to address them and, often, change institutional arrangements so that the externality becomes visible and is internalized by other social actors”

Newbert & Hill (2014): “Social entrepreneurship is novel activity intended to generate producer surplus via the creation of positive externalities and/or the reduction of negative externalities”

Risico’s van non-conforme begripsbepaling •  Onduidelijkheid à onderwerp ‘gekaapt’ door anderen zonder dat dit concrete oplossingen biedt •  Te breed à diffuus begrip (‘big tent’)

Business for social solutions: business as usual?

•  http://www.ted.com/talks/ michael_porter_why_business_can_be_go od_at_solving_social_problems.html

A big tent?

Drie dimensies voor kleinere tenten •  Social •  Profit •  Newness/Innovation Ø Maatschappelijke innovatie Ø Filantropie Ø Cooperatieven Ø Workplace integration

Ø Sociaal ondernemerschap?

Utrecht University Social Entrepreneurship Initiative Social entrepreneurship comprises the recognition of a social problem, with regard to which opportunities for the creation of goods and services are explored, evaluated and developed, with the primary goal of establishing a social change in an innovative way. (www.uu.nl/se-initiative)

Economische Relevantie •  Value creation & value capture; positieve externaliteiten (Santos 2012) •  Creating real value for society in an entrepreneurial manner, economisch surplus (Newbert & Hill 2014) •  Rol van institutionele omgeving: institutional void & institutional support

Value Creation vs. Value Capture •  Santos (2012): Tradeoff tussen ‘value creation’ en ‘value capture’: netto social value wordt gecompenseerd door producer surplus •  Newbert & Hill (2014): social surplus (public benefit), buyer surplus (private benefit) en producer surplus

Value Creation & Destruction Positive externality Social surplus (public benefit) Buyer’s willingness to pay

Economic value

Buyer surplus (private benefit)

Value creation

Price Producer surplus (private benefit) Producer’s willingness to accept Producer cost (private cost) $0 Social cost (public cost)

Value destruction

Negative externality

Bron: Newbert, S.L. & Hill, R.P. (2014). Setting the stage for paradigm development: a “small tent” approach to social entrepreneurship. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, te verschijnen

Terug naar Adam Smith De onzichtbare hand

Santos’ proposities 1.  The distinctive domain of action of social entrepreneurship is addressing neglected problems in society involving positive externalities. Ø  Jullie voorbeelden?

Introducing a positive externality

Bron: Newbert, S.L. & Hill, R.P. (2014). Setting the stage for paradigm development: a “small tent” approach to social entrepreneurship. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, te verschijnen

Reducing a negative externality

Bron: Newbert, S.L. & Hill, R.P. (2014). Setting the stage for paradigm development: a “small tent” approach to social entrepreneurship. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, te verschijnen

Santos’ proposities 1.  The distinctive domain of action of social entrepreneurship is addressing neglected problems in society involving positive externalities. 2.  Social entrepreneurs are more likely to operate in areas with localized positive externalities that benefit a powerless segment of the population 3.  Social entrepreneurs are more likely to seek sustainable solutions than to seek sustainable advantages. 4.  Social entrepreneurs are more likely to develop a solution built on the logic of empowerment than on the logic of control.

Instituties en (sociaal ) ondernemerschap Welfare

Institutions

Rule of law, taxes, anti-trust, labour market regulation, environmental regulation

Entrepreneurial Talents

Entrepreneurial Behaviour - self-employment / employee - self-employed / employer - independent entrepreneurship / intrapreneurship - traditional/ sustainable/social entrepreneurship

Welfare

Institutions

Formal: education Informal: culture

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Entrepreneurial Entrepreneurial Talents / Behaviour Preferences (entrepreneurial culture)?! Institutions affect both the supply and the allocation of entrepreneurial talent Acs et al. (2012, p. 794): “Entrepreneurial innovation is the dynamic interactions of a variety of institutions and structures, such as markets, political institutions and culture.”

Ins$tu$ons  and  Social  Entrepreneurship   •  Two  (seemingly?)  contras$ng  perspec$ves   –  Ins$tu$onal  void  perspec$ve:  lack  of  strong  (formal)   ins$tu$ons  à  social  entrepreneurship  (Kerlin,  2009;  Mair   and  MarI,  2009;  Dacin  et  al.,  2010;  Dorado  and  Ventresca,   2012).   –  Ins$tu$onal  support  perspec$ve:  social  entrepreneurs   prosper  by  the  presence  of  strong  and  predictable  (formal)   ins$tu$ons  (Kerlin  2009;  Estrin  et  al.  2011;  Nissan  et  al.   2012).   è  What  societal  mechanisms  are  at  play?   •  Recent  empirical  contribu$ons  support  this  laRer   perspec$ve  (Estrin  et  al.,  2013;  Nissan  et  al.,  2012).  

Economische Relevantie •  Value creation & value capture; positieve externaliteiten (Santos 2012) •  Creating real value for society in an entrepreneurial manner, economisch surplus (Newbert & Hill 2014) •  Rol van institutionele omgeving: institutional void & institutional support

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