Manifest destiny and sectionalism

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, American Politics
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Bell Ringer:  Agenda and Objective: Through  1.In groups answer homework review your manifest destiny questions. 10 minutes students will identify the impact of Manifest Destiny in Western  2. Using the PPT on Politics class page, fill in chart. This must be completed for Tomorrow

Bell Ringer: What does this picture mean in regards to Manifest destiny? Who coined the phrase? “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872

Chapter 18 Rising Sectionalism

Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny  The

spread of settlers beyond U.S. borders led to widespread calls for annexation of newly-settled lands  The term “Manifest Destiny” was 1st used in 1845 by newspaper editor John O’Sullivan, who said: – God wants the USA (“His chosen nation”) to become stronger – Expansion of American democracy & economic opportunities were a good thing

Joseph Smith’s murder led to resettlement in Western Trails Salt Lake, Utah where Brigham Young built a Mormon community The Santa Fe Trail(“Deseret”) allowed the U.S. to sell goods to Texas

In 1857, Mormon Utah became a U.S. territory & Young was named governor The Oregon led to massive immigration of TheTrail California Trail allowed western farmers in 1840s & demands Joseph& Smith founded the Mormon traders ranchers to move toto end the jointChurch U.S.-British occupation of Oregon in 1830, but were persecuted in California in 1830s & 1840s the East for their unorthodox beliefs

The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 & 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward

th 19

Century US Territorial Expansion: Maine Texas Oregon California

Maine

Canada Territorial Expansion by •In 1839, fighting broke out between residents in Maine & Canada over the disputed Maine border •Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842): •The U.S. received ½ the disputed land •Established a clear border in Maine

Mid-19th Century

Texas

Territorial Expansion by Mid-19th Century

Texas •In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain •The new Mexican government opted for a free-trade policy with USA •Thousands of U.S. speculators moved to Texas

The Texas Revolution  In the 1820s, encouraged “Texans” ignored the Mexico Mexican ban on slavery

U.S. immigration to Texas but “Texans” refused to convert to problems emerged between Catholicism “Anglos” & the new Mexican gov’t –Texans never fully accepted Mexican rules –In 1834, Santa Anna became dictator & was viewed as threat “Texans” refused to pay import to Texans’ duties interests  An armed rebellion broke out in “Texans” wanted self-rule like in the 1835, led by Stephen F. Austin U.S.

The Republic of Texas (1836-1845)  In

1836 Texans declared their independence from Mexico & wrote a national constitution  But the war for independence still had to be fought

Texans were defeated at the Alamo

Texans were defeated at Goliad In May 1836, Santa Anna recognized Texas’ independence & its territory to the Rio Grande

But…Texans won at San Jacinto & captured General Santa Anna

Davey of Crockett’s Last Stand The Battle the Alamo

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna recaptures the Alamo

The Republic of Texas  Sam Houston was the 1st

president of the Texas’ Republic of Texas & asked population soared fromto30,000 142,000a by the U.S. maketoTexas state 1845  Presidents Jackson & Van Buren both refused to annex Texas (to avoid arguments over slavery)  Texas offered free land grants to U.S. settlers; white families in search of land & opportunity moved to Texas in 1830s & 1840s

Tyler and Texas  In

1844, President Tyler called for the annexation of Texas: –Tyler (Whig) & Calhoun (Dem) created a propaganda campaign that England Tyler neededwanted to make Texas Texas a campaign issue in the election 1844 –Northern Senators did notoffall because he had been kicked out of the for itParty & refused to to ratify theto the Whig & hoped appeal treaty to annex Texas common man –Tyler was not nominated by either party in the 1844 election

Polk & Texas Annexation  In

1844, the Whigs nominated Henry Clay & the Democrats Appealed the nominated JamestoPolk South  Polk won on expansionist platform – Called for Texas annexation – Called for an end to the joint U.S.-British control of Oregon  Polk & Congress interpreted the Appealed to the election as mandate for expansion North & Texas was quickly made a state

Mexican-American War  Causes

of the Mexican War: –Mexico recognized Texas’ independence & U.S. annexation, but disagreed over Texas’ southern border –In May 1846, Polk sent U.S. General Zachary Taylor beyond the Rio Grande River which led to the Mexican-American War

John C Fremont won The Mexican-American War in California The disputed Zachary Taylor won area of Texas in northern Mexico

Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico Winfield Scott captured Mexico City

Nottoeveryone supported Opposition the Mexican War the Mexican-American War

Whigs opposed it Northerners saw it as a Southern “slave-power” plot to extend slavery

Ending thegrew Mexican War The Added U.S. 20% by the the Gadsdenadding Purchase

Mexican Cession (present-day NM,  In 1848, U.S. & Mexico the war in 1853 to build aended southern Utah,of NV, & parts of CO & withAZ, theCA, Treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo: transcontinental railroad

WY

The Rio Grande became the recognized U.S.

Oregon

th Century Oregon Territorial Expansion by Mid-19

• U.S. & Britain jointly occupied Oregon (Spain relinquished its claims to Oregon in the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819) • Britain claimed a greater stake of Oregon via Hudson Bay Co. (fur trade)

The Oregon Boundary Dispute

But, the USA & England Oregon residents compromised & demanded the divided Oregon entire territory: th In 1846, President Polk notifiedalong Britain 49that “54º40’ or fight!” the U.S. wanted full control of Oregon parallel in 1846

Territorial Expansion by Mid-19th Century Benefits of Oregon: the U.S. gained its 1st deep-water port in the Pacific & Northern abolitionists saw Oregon as a balance to slave-state Texas

California

Territorial Expansion by Mid-19th Century California •In 1833, the new Mexican gov’t awarded land grants to rancheros who quickly replaced the missionary padres •In 1830s, the U.S. was eager to enter the cowhide trade

The Bear Flag Republic Like Texas, California operated as an independent nation; the California Republic existed for one month from June 1846 to July 1846 when it was annexed by the United States

 California

settlers used John Fremont’s occupation of California California during became a U.S. state as part of the Compromise of 1850 the MexicanAmerican War as an opportunity to revolt from Mexico in 1846

The California Gold Rush  The

discovery of gold in 1848 led to a massive influx of prospectors in 1849 (the “forty-niners”): –Few miners struck it rich –The real money made in CA was in supplying miners with food, saloons, & provisions –The gold rush led to a population boom, increase in agriculture, & multicultural Californian society

Where the 49ers Came From 80%

United States Europe & Asia

13%

7%

Latin America

Conclusions: The Costs of Expansion

The Costs of Expansion  The impact

of territorial expansion: –Historian Fredrick Jackson Turner noted in the 1890s that expansion shaped Americans into an adventurous, optimistic, & democratic people –But, expansion created sectional conflicts between the North & South, especially over slavery

U.S. Territorial Expansion

Sectionalism: complete chart

The Beginnings of Sectionalism  As

Americans expanded West in the 1840s, conflicts intensified between the North & the South regarding the issue of slavery  But…the existence of two strong political parties (Democrats & Whigs) that were both popular in the North, South, & West helped keep America from splitting apart

The Slave Question Reemerges  The

Constitution gave no definite authority to abolish slavery other than voluntary state action –Abolitionists knew it would be impossible to get enough votes to pass an amendment outlawing slavery –But, northerners in Congress could forbid slavery in new states as they were added to the Union

The Slave Question Reemerges  The

slavery issue in the West had been settled by the Missouri Compromise in 1820…  But the newwas states added in the Slavery not entrenched either led territory 1840s & in 1850s to problems: –Texas (slave state) balanced by Oregon (free territory) –What about California & New Mexico? Both were south of the Missouri Compromise line

The Wilmot Proviso  The

Wilmot Proviso was presented by Northerners in 1846 to: –Ban allshift blacks (free is & looming slave) from A major in politics involving sectional political the Mexican Cession inparties order to preserve land for white farmers –Attempt to limit the perceived “pro-Southern” Polk presidency  The Wilmot Proviso did not pass in Congress but its debate revealed sectional (not party) divisions

Activity…  With

your neighbor, and textbook fill out the charts that deal with sectional events that lead to the civil war.  Rank in importance the event  What were the effects felt by both the North and South regarding these issues?

Northern Democrats liked it (let The Election of settlers 1848 decide)  Slavery in the West was a key Southern Democrats liked it Northern Whigs supported Taylor issue the Election of 1848: (let state conventions decide) because he in promised to let Congress decide slavery inLewis the territories –Democrat Cass proposed Free Soilers were not abolitionists; sovereignty allow Southern Whigstosupported Theypopular were against the expansion of Taylor because he owned slaves slavery into the West territorial settlers (not Congress)

to decide slavery in the West –Whig candidate Zachary Taylor evaded the slavery issue –The Free Soil Party was created by Northern abolitionists who nominated Martin Van Buren

Taylor won the election, but Free Soilers did well in the North

The Compromise of 1850

Reasons for Compromise of 1850  Southerners

were mad when Taylor proposed admitting New Mexico & California as states – Popular sovereignty would make California a free state – New Mexico had no slaves or a climate adequate for slavery –John C Calhoun led the Nashville Convention to discuss Southern secession

The Debate Over Slavery Webster: The Calhoun: The South North will never accept secession

must protect slavery & will “peacefully” secede

The Compromise of 1850 was the last debate of the “Great Triumvirate”

Clay: We must compromise

The Compromise of 1850 Ended the slave trade California was in Washington DC admitted as a free state (but not slavery) Taylor threatened to veto the compromise but his death in 1850 allowed VP Millard Fillmore to sign the Compromise of 1850 Popular sovereignty would decide slavery in Utah & New Mexico

A stronger Fugitive Slave Law was created to appease the South

Political Upheaval & the Rise of Sectional Political Parties

The Party System in Crisis  With

slavery (temporarily) under wraps, the parties needed new issues for the election of 1852: –Whigs nominated Mexican War general Winfield Scott; Whigs had difficulty finding an issue –Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce, claimed credit for national prosperity, & promised to defend the Compromise of 1850

The Election of 1852

By 1852, the Whig Party was in trouble

Had no significant platform issues Had difficulty appealing to voters in the North & South Southern Whigs were angry over the dominance of the anti-slave Whig faction

The Know-Nothing Party  The

collapse of the Whigs allowed for the rise of the “Know-Nothings” (the American Party) –Fueled by nativism & a desire to reduce immigrant influence –Hoped to strengthen the naturalization process to decrease immigrant voting  Appealed to ex-Democrats, ex-Whigs, & industrial workers

The Know-Nothing Party  In

1854, the American Party took control of state legislatures in New England, Maryland, Kentucky, & Texas; seemed on the verge of challenging the Democratic Party  But, by 1856 the Know-Nothings collapsed due to a lack of experienced leadership & had no response to slavery (which was the REAL issue in America)

Shift in Party Power 1852-1855

The KansasNebraska Act

The Kansas-Nebraska Act  In

1854, Democrat Stephen Douglas hoped to organize the Kansas & Nebraska territories with the Kansas-Nebraska Act: Northern abolitionists were outraged –because The Missouri Compromise line it allowed slavery in an area where slavery was&already prohibited was repealed popular sovereignty was applied to slavery in Kansas & Nebraska – Many Northerners were now convinced that compromise with the South was impossible

Coalition of Whigs, Northern Democrats, & The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Free-Soilers formed the Republican Party; became exclusively Northern by 1856

The Kansas-Nebraska Act changed American politics & increased sectionalism

Southern Whigs defected to the Democratic Party which became an exclusively Southern party

The Rise of the Republicans  The

Republican Party appealed to Northerners: –Believed in “free soil” & fought against a “slave power” scheme –Vowed to protect free white workers & boost the economy –Made up of seasoned politicians who effectively built up the power of the party by 1856

The Shift to Sectional Political Parties

Watch American party politics become sectional, rather than national, from 1848 to 1860

In 1848, both parties have national appeal

In the election of 1852, both parties have national appeal

Look at the Republicans in the North & the Democrats in the South by 1856!

By 1860, the Republicans elected Lincoln without even campaigning in the South!

Conclusions  American

politics experienced a significant change in the late antebellum era (1800 to 1860): –In the early antebellum era, sectional rivalries were evident but national parties kept the U.S. united –In the 1840s & 1850s, westward expansion forced the North & South to protect their regional values against an unseen conspiracy

Chapter 18 and 19 The Nation Divided (18561860)

Dred Scott The Lecompton Political Upheaval in the 1850s decision in 1857 Controversy in 1857 John Brown’ssectional raid on Lincoln-Douglas  Manifest Destiny intensified Harper’s Ferry in 1859 debates in 1858 differences between the North & the Impending Crisis Lincoln’s election South regarding slavery in the 1840s 18591850s in 1860 &in early  But…the sectional quarrel between The Mexican Texas & Oregon Cession in 1848 the the South became in North 1845 && 1846 “irreconcilable” in the mid-1850s, Popular sovereignty The & the Kansasespecially under Buchanan Compromise of James Nebraska Act in 1854 (1857-1860) 1850

Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)  Harriet

Beecher Stowe’s account of slavery became the best selling book of the 19th century: –Uncle Tom’ Cabin depicted the harsh reality of slavery –The book became a vital Lincoln said to Beecher Stowe in 1861, antislavery tool among “So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war!” abolitionists

“Bleeding Kansas” (1854-1858)  The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Pro-slavery residents created

Kansas’ firstpopular territorial legislature proposed sovereignty & wrote laws protecting slavery

–The vote to determine slavery in Free soilers created Kansas turned into aa rival bloody territorial gov’t that was not small-scale war recognizedcivil by President –RepublicansPierce benefited from the fighting by using “Bleeding Kansas” propaganda to support their antislave cause

ThisThousands incident became known as of pro-slavery “Bleeding Kansas” Missouri residents crossed the border & voted for slavery The vote revealed a pro-slavery victory which led to a violent civil war in Kansas

Free-soilers from Kansas voted against slavery

“Bleeding Sumner”

SC Senator Preston Brooks beat Senator Charles Sumner because of a speech Sumner had made criticizing President Pierce & Southerners who supported the pro-slavery violence in Kansas

Sectionalism in Election of 1856 1856 was the first clearly sectional presidential election in U.S. history – Republican John C. Frémont campaigned only in free states – Know-Nothing Fillmore called for sectional compromise – Democrat James Buchanan endorsed popular sovereignty & the Compromise of 1850  Buchanan beat Frémont in the North & beat Fillmore in the South 

Southerners were relieved by the The Election of 1856 victory but were threatened by the existence of a party devoted to ending slavery Northerners realized that the free-states had a large majority in the Electoral College so a Republican could become president by only campaigning in the North

wasCase Missouri slave TheDred DredScott Scott (1857)

transported to Wisconsin where slavery was outlawed; Scott argued he should be  When Buchanan was elected, he This ruling strengthened the free wanted the Supreme Court to resolve the Republican fear of a “slave power slavery question conspiracy”in all branches of the U.S.  In Dred Scott v.toSanford (1857),Court, Taney & According the Supreme gov’t theCongress Supreme can Court ruled: not prohibit slavery – Dred Scottthe hadgovernment no right to sue because because cannot blacks are nottheir citizens deny citizens right to property – Congress had (slaves) no authority to prohibit slavery in western territories so the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional

The Lecompton Controversy Republicans were enraged  In 1857, Kansas held an election for over President Buchanan’s delegates to write a constitution & apply for attempt to “force” slavery statehood upon Kansas

◦ A rigged election led to a pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution Douglas viewed this as a perversion of popular sovereignty & opposed ◦ Buchanan tried to push Kansas’ Southern Democrats admission through despite the fraud but Congress refused ◦ Kansas was made a free territory, not a slave state

Lincoln that popular sovereignty The argued Lincoln-Douglas Debates is wrongisbecause it supports spread ofbut Slavery an acceptable evil the in the South  Democrat Stephen Douglas ranwhere slavery it must be kept out of territories Douglas accused Lincoln of favoring racial against Republican Abraham Lincoln slavery is not protected by the Constitution equality & a radical plan to extinguish for thethat 1858 Illinois Senate slavery would force the U.S. into a civil  In these Lincoln-Douglas debates: war

Lincoln lost the election, but the debates gained him a national reputation & reaffirmed the Republicans’ uncompromising commitment to the free-soil position

“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.” —Abraham Lincoln, 1858

The South's Crisis of Fear  Two

events in 1859 increased Southern fears of North:

 John

Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA; he & 18 men planned to end slavery in the South by leading slave insurrections: ◦ Brown was caught & executed, but he was perceived by many in the North to be a martyr ◦ Witch-hunts, vigilante groups, & talk of secession grew in South

John Brown: John Brown’s Body Northern Martyr orJohn Southern Brown'sVillain? body lies

John Brown the martyr

a-mouldering in the grave, John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave, But his soul goes marching on Glory, glory, hallelujah, Glory, glory, hallelujah, His soul goes marching on

The South's Crisis of Fear 

Hinton Helper’s Impending Crisis of the South in 1859: – Helper was a white southerner who argued that slavery hurt the South & small farmers – Southerners saw the book as a plot to rally yeoman against the elite & end slavery

The Election of 1860 

The election of 1860 was the final straw for the South  Republicans nominated Lincoln: – Illinois was a crucial swing-state – Lincoln was seen as a self-made man who represented equality – His platform of high tariffs for industry, free homesteads in the West, transcontinental railroad widened the party’s appeal

The Election of 1860  Democrats

were fatally split: ◦ Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas who ran on a platform of popular sovereignty ◦ Southern Democrats nominated John Breckenridge who swore to protect slavery in the West

 Ex-Whigs

& Know-Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party & ran John Bell on a compromise platform

TheThe 1860Election Election:of A Nation Coming Apart 1860 North: Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglass  During election, 4 nominees ran: –Republicans Competed in North –Douglas Democrats –“Southern Rights Dems Competed –Constitutional Unionists in South South: Breckenridge vs. Bell

The Election of 1860

Lincoln won & the South immediately launched a campaign for secession from the Union

Explaining the Crisis  The

most significant underlying cause of the Civil War was slavery; slavery (more so than economic differences) divided the U.S. into 2 irreconcilable factions

 The

North & South argued for two very different ideals of liberty & independence but by the 1850s, the sectional ideologies made any form of compromise impossible

Class Discussion:

 What

was the most important causes of the Civil War??

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