Maori Worldview

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Sociology
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Maori Worldview Michelle Calleros Nicole Coddington Tatiana Stojanov Megan Welch

Maori People

Maori People Traditional images

Australia & New Zealand

Maori Demographics •

• •

1 in 7 people in New Zealand were of Māori ethnicity

1 in 4 people of Māori ethnicity speak the Māori language Nearly 9 in 10 people of Māori ethnicity live in the North Island

Who are the Maori people? • •

The name "Māori" originally meant "the local people", or "the original people" The ancestors of the Maori were a Polynesian people originating from South east Asia. o Some historians trace the early Polynesian settlers of New Zealand as migrating from today's China, making the long voyage traveling via Taiwan, through the South Pacific and on to New Zealand The first Polynesians settled mainly around the coast of New Zealand, and especially the east coast, which was more temperate climate

Maori Ontology •

Kaupapa Maori o conceptualization of Maori knowledge that has been developed through oral tradition o process by which Maori mind receives, internalizes, differentiates, and formulates ideas and knowledge exclusively through te reo Maori o Kaupapa Maori is esoteric and tuturu Maori. It is knowledge that validates a Maori world view and is not only Māori owned but also Maori controlled

Maori Ontology • •

Maori call themselves tangata whenua, people of the land Members of the various tribes distinguish themselves from other Maori by referring to the canoe that brought their ancestors to Aotearoa (New Zealand) and to special landmarks such as a river or a mountain They tie their collective and individual identities to ancestors and places o When they introduce themselves, they often will give not only their name, but also the names of their mountain and river

Maori Ontology This creation story provides the basis for Maori

philosophy: all creatures are kin, all beings have Maori (life force), and all are tapu (sacred). People must respect all beings and relate to them in a proper ritual

manner, always aware of our mutual interdependencies and always seeking harmony. Yet we also must live and sometimes this requires us to

have “vigorous relations” such as killing and eating our kin (other creatures) as long as we do so in the proper ritual manner that includes being sure that

proper ecological balances are respected.

Maori Epistemology • • •

Maori held an essentially spiritual view of the universe Anything associated with the supernatural was invested with tapu, a mysterious quality which made those things or people sacred or unclean according to context Their Knowledge resignants with with the nature that surrounds them, Their Gods, and Their Ancestors

Maori Epistemology • • •

Whakapapa is the genealogical descent of all living things from the gods to the present time Whakapapa is a basis for the organization of knowledge in respect of the creation and development of all things Whakapapa is one of the most prized forms of knowledge and great efforts are made to preserve it

Whakapapa identifies who I am, where I am from

Maori Ethics •

Whanaungatanga o process of establishing meaningful, reciprocal and familial relationships through culturally appropriate ways, establishing connectedness and engagement and therefore a deeper commitment to other people

Religious Beliefs and Practices The Indigenous Belief system and the Practices of other beliefs systems due to colonialism

Religion in New Zealand Post-colonialism

Spiritual Images

Traditional Maori Core Values •

Mana o Mana is a term that relates to power, dignity and respect.

Titiro, whakarongo … korero o To look, and listen first and then maybe speaking. “This value emphasizes the importance of looking/observing and listening in order to develop understandings and find a place from which to speak” (Smith & Cram, 2001)

Traditional Social Structure •

• •

Within the hapu each member did the job for which he or she was best suited, and rank depended not on the accumulation of goods but on the extent to which a person provided them for others

A tohunga was a 'specialist' (e.g., a woodcarver was a tohunga whakairo rakau) but few were engaged full-time on their special skill When not so occupied they would join in the ordinary everyday work of the tribe from which even the ariki was not exempt

Maori Wedding Ceremony

Marriage in Traditional Maori Society •

Marriage within traditional Maori society was shaped by the importance of family and tribal links

For most people, partners were ideally chosen from within the hapū or iwi group o marriages were often arranged, with children promised in marriage from a very young age o people sometimes found their own partners  would then seek agreement from senior members of their family

Marriage in Traditional Maori Society

• •

Toanga, or treasure, would be exchanged between the future couples families Feasts are then held in the couples' honor

Sex and Marriage •

Regulation of sex was not a primary purpose of marriage within Maori society o Most young people were expected to form sexual relationships o might have more than one relationship before marriage  in some cases these early relationships became a marriage The exception to this sexual freedom were puhi o young women of high rank, who remained virgins before marriage

Tangi – Maori Funeral Practice • •

• •

The tangi or tangihanga embraces the funeral rites accorded a person before the body is finally interred The Maori belief is that the tupapaku (body of the deceased person) should not be left on its own at any stage after death o Family and friends may come and go from this place as they wish, or they may remain until after the actual burial The coffin is left open, and people will touch the tupapaku Speeches will be made directly to the tupapaku in the belief that the spirit does not leave the vicinity of the body until the burial

The Haka

Social Integration • • • •

Have integrated into most aspects of the predominant culture with the exception of: Rugby o have their own Rugby union (Maori Rugby Union) o rugby is the most popular sport in New Zealand Media o have own television and radio stations Politics o specified seat in Parliament reserved for Maori

Maori Representation Act of 1867 • •

Originally offered 4 seats in Parliament so Maori could be represented Now have 7 seats in the Parliament of New Zealand reserved for them due to the growth in population

Cultural Patterns •

Oral tradition

Strong family ties

Important gestures




Oral Tradition and Family • • • •

Very strong family units helped because of stories passed down from generation to generation about their ancestors Important to maintain the "mana of whapua" o meaning power of extended family Chronological time is not of importance so people tell stories of their ancestors as if they are still present in their lives Speaking the stories, rather than just reading them, gives them closer, more intimate knowledge about Maori culture and their ancestry

Important Gestures • •

Removal of shoes before entering a building o sign of respect Touching noses o sign of friendship/love Sticking out tongue o intimidation tactic

Ta Moko Tattoos •

• • •

Considered a matter of the spirit Each individual piece of a tattoo means something significant to the person, culture and spirituality A prayer is said before beginning the tattooing process Full face tattoos are considered a political statement, recalling times pre-colonization o Also shows tribal affiliation and ancestry

Ta Moko Tattoos •

Tattoos will have three different meanings to them o three is the lucky number o represents family, the mother, father and child o also represents a change for the good, like you are shedding your old skin and having a deeper relationship with the culture

Music and Dance

• Maori are of Polynesian descent so they have dances that are similar to those of Hawaiians and Tahitians

Have more aggressive dances, like the haka, that were performed before battle and are now performed before rugby games and at group celebrations

Minority Group •

Make up about 14% of New Zealand's total population o approximately 600,000 Maori people

Most live on the North island because of the warmer climate

History of Oppression and War • • •

Maori were oppressed during European colonization o late 1700's-late 1800's While a peaceful tribe now, history of wars between other hapu (sub tribes) Musket Wars 1807-1842 o series of up to 500 battles o began after Maori gained access to muskets o brutal and ruthless battles o killed, tortured or enslaved rival clans o some evidence found about cannibalism at this time

Rural to Urban • •

Traditionally, Maori people lived in Rural communities Post Depression era/WWII Maoris moved into larger rural communities or urban areas in search of employment

Poverty •

On average Maori have fewer assets than the rest of the population which has ultimately lead to some negative outcomes o high Maori prison population o high unemployment rates o high domestic violence rates

Low Formal Education • •

Only about half of the Maori population finish school with higher than an 11th year education o equivalent to a senior in high school Half do not go to college o have high standardized test scores based on a global scale

Health Issues

• Obesity in the Maori is rising at an alarming rate and to the point of growing into a health crisis

Two major issues: o food plays an important role in family and community life, o feeding large families increases reliance on the consumption of commercially produced, poor quality food Heart disease and diabetes are of great concern. o Maori have one of the world’s highest rate of diabetes

Health Issues

Life expectancy: o 72.8 years for Maori men 76.5 for Maori women compared to 80.2 and 83.7 for non-Maori in New Zealand

Health Issues: Government Policy •

• A government policy was made in New Zealand, "Closing the Gaps" is the policy of assisting socially disadvantaged ethnic groups, particularly the Maori community, through specially targeted social programs

Deculturation has been associated with poor health while acculturation has been linked to good health. Therefore a goal of health promotion should be to promote security of identity

• •

Alcoholism Maori suffer from high levels of alcohol and drug-related problems 85 percent of New Zealanders aged 16 to 64 drank alcohol in the past year (Ministry of Health, 2009) Maori women are nearly twice as likely to have a potentially hazardous alcohol drinking pattern, compared to those in the total New Zealand population (Ministry of Health, 2008)

Social Issues • • • •

The vast majority of the Maori community are urban dwellers The Maori continue to suffer many social problems that accompany urban life in conditions of poverty In some urban areas, Maori unemployment rates exceed 50 percent Maori women and children are most likely to experience domestic violence than any other ethnic group

Social Issues: Unemployment rates 1986-2011

Social Issues: Prison Statistics Early-life social and environmental factors result in Maori being at greater risk of ending up in adult criminal conduct: being born to young mothers lack of family stability a family environment in which conflict and violence is common being exposed to harsh punishment

• • • •

Over-representation of Maori people forming just 12.5% of the general population aged 15 and over 50% identify as Maori

• •

"For example, with respect to the prison population, the rate of imprisonment for [New Zealand's] non-Maori population is around 100 per 100,000. If that rate applied to Maori also, the number of Maori in prison at any one time would be no more than 650. There are however currently 4000 Maori in prison, six times the number one might otherwise expect" -New Zealand Corrections

Prison statistics from March 2011 (Department of Corrections: New Zealand)

Social Issues: Domestic Violence • •

New Zealand has one of the worst rates of domestic violence in the developed world Fifty percent of those sentenced for the offence of "male assaults female" in the year 2004-2007 were Maori o

Maori make up only about 15% of the country's population

2007 national survey of victims of crime, 42% of Maori women said a partner had abused them physically New Zealand falls into a group of developed countries with "moderate to moderately-high" child homicide rates -Mike Doolan, former Chief Social Worker, researcher at Canterbury University BBC News UK

Prison statistics from March 2011 (Department of Corrections: New Zealand)

Social Issues: Domestic Violence Why? lack of family stability poverty lack of communication cycle of violence

• • • •

"Brian Gardner, manager of National Network of Stopping Violence Services, said men in colonised cultures could have even less power in the world and end up taking it out on the people they are closest to." (BBC News UK: New Zealand Faces it's Dark Secret 2007)

Postcolonial Films of the Maori

Postcolonial Films of the Maori



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