Download Mayan Civilization...
Location: Mexico and Central American rain forest Government: city-states ruled by a king Economy: Agriculture and trade Religion: Polytheistic and built pyramids Declined for unknown reasons
Each city was ruled by a chief (king). Cities traded with each other, but they also went to war with one another.
Most people were farmers, but the soil was so good, they really only had to farm 50 days out of the year. The main crop was maize corn)
They spend the rest of the year with community projects (building things to honor the chief)
The Mayans had a form of written language (hieroglyphs) that allowed them the keep records and write stories.
Mayan’s and Math
The Mayans developed a number system and math skills early. It looks similar to tally marks.
The Mayans also studied astronomy. They watched the sun and the planets. This allowed them to develop an accurate calendar.
The Mayans were polytheistic. Gods were based on nature (sun, rain, maize, etc.)
Their were over 150 different gods, and religion played a huge role in Mayan life.
Many Mayan customs, especially religious ones, required human sacrifice.
loved to sing, dance, and play sports.
The most popular game they played was called Pok-aTok. Teams of players would try to get a rubbery ball through a hoop, but you could not use your hands or feet (only body, legs, or arms).
The Mayan people preferred long, flat heads. So, when babies were born, and their skulls were still soft, they would make them wooden vices to shape their heads.
a large, prominent nose was also a sign of nobility. Most hairstyles entailed a ponytail
Represented by Chichen Itza
Aztec Civilization Location: In arid (dry) valley in Central Mexico Government: Ruled by an emperor Economy: Agriculture Religion: Polytheistic and built pyramids where the Gods were thirsty for human sacrifice
Sacrificed 20,000 to 50,000 people each year Aztecs were engaged in much warfare Sacrificed those they conquered
Represented by Tenochtitlan
Farming was the major industry for the Aztecs. Corn was a staple crop. They also hunted and fished.
Aztec men supported their families and his government (by paying taxes). Aztec women ran the house and raised the children.
Aztecs has simple homes with simple furniture. Houses had beds, a low table, a kitchen, and a small shrine for the gods. Bathrooms were in separate buildings.
The easiest and most common way to climb through up the social ladder was to show courage in battle. One of the main reasons to go to war was to capture enemies for sacrifice.
Aztec Civilization Invented Tlachtli:
◦ A ballgame that uses a rubber ball or heads of sacrificed victims ◦ No use of hands ◦ Shoot the ball into a hoop on the side of a wall
also believed in many gods. The sun was very important to the religion and they worshipped it.
They believed that one day the sun would erupt and the world would end violently. To stop this, they fed the sun human blood (sacrifice).
Aztec Written Language The Aztecs had a written language, but it was pictographs. They also had a number system for counting.
Incan Civilization Location: Andes Mountains of South America Government: Ruled by Emperor Economy: Agriculture in high altitudes Religion: Polytheistic
Represented by Machu Picchu
Prevented water from running off Agriculture in too quickly. high altitude in the mountains
Terracing allowed the Incans to use more land for cultivation. It also helped to resist erosion of the land by wind and rain. Staple crops were potatoes, corn, and quinoa.
People either lived on the coast or in the highlands. They lived in simple houses made of either stone bricks or of mud.
Commoners paid the taxes to support the civilization (not the nobility or the sick and elderly)
Family Men were responsible for working (usually on farms) and supporting the family. Women were responsible for taking care of the home and children. Commoners had to educate their children.
Religion • •
The Incans worshipped many gods, shrines and objects, especially the sun. They believed in an afterworld. So, they were buried with things they thought might be useful
Human sacrifice was The Incans believed that common in religious the gods had sacrificed ceremonies. It was themselves in the usually done by priests creation of the sun and and was an act of moon, so people had to communion with the do the same thing. gods.
Incans believed disease was supernatural. They treated sickness with herbs, but also with urine, and bleeding the sick.
Surgeons could bore holes in the head or amputate limbs when necessary.
The Incans did keep records, but it was with knotting strings. Based on length of strings, color, types of knots, and position of strings. They did not WRITE!
QUIPU – system of knots on a cord to record important information Road System