Mechanization and Industrialization

January 22, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Mechanization and Industrialization

I. Beginnings A. Agricultural Revolution 1. Jethro Tull’s “Seed Drill”

2. Crop rotation B. Factors of Production 1. Land – natural resources 2. Labor – people to work 3. Capital – equipment and $

England during the Industrial Revolution

Definitions Industrial Revolution - Changes that began in the 1700s, when machines began to do much of the work that people had done before Mechanization - Use of automatic machinery to increase production

II. Inventions A. Textile Industry 1. 1733 – flying shuttle 2. 1760s – “Spinning Jenny” * 8x normal production 3. 1780s – Water powered “spinning Jenny” and Spinning Mill 4. 1793 – Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin

B. Heavy Industry 1. 1769 – James Watt patents the steam engine and becomes major power source for industry 2. Late 1700s – Coal and Iron ore mined in Britain 3. 1850s – “Bessemer Process” to make steel (lighter and stronger than iron) for use in engines

C. Transportation and Communication 1. 1804 – R. Trevithick invents steam locomotive 2. 1808 – R. Fulton invents steamboat 3. 1838 – S. Morse invents the telegraph and Morse Code

D. Factory Breakthroughs 1. 1820s - 30s: Faraday invents the dynamo and electric properties are harnessed 2. Assembly Line (1913) – Divides operations into simple tasks that unskilled workers could do and cut unnecessary movement to a minimum 3. Ford’s “Model T” Car: A. 1908 – Cost = $850 – 12 hrs. to make B. 1924 – Cost = $295 – 19 min. to make

Mass Production - System of producing large numbers of identical items

III. Factories A. Work 1. Easier to learn 2. Machines do not need rest 3. Assembly Line = Mass production B. Workers 1. Women and children worked (cheaper) 2. Growing opportunities for women 3. Harsh conditions 4. Growing middle class

IV. Conclusion A. Industry feeds itself and inventions move industry quickly into the future B. Businesses are making more money than ever

C. Industries are using natural resources to fuel their rise D. Harsh conditions yet growing opportunities for individuals

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