Medieval Conflicts and Crusades (700
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Chapter Focus Question: How did a series of conflicts leave their mark on Europe in the Middle Ages?
Section 1 Focus Question: How did popes try to establish authority over kings?
Medieval Conflicts and Crusades (700-1500) Chapter 15, Sec. 1
A Study in Cooperation After Roman Rule collapsed in Europe, the Christian Church became the center of Medieval life. Gradually
kings restored law and order, but the popes claimed authority over all of Christendom.
A Christian Ruler
Charlemagne Devout Christian Victories were proof of God’s blessing Ordered priests and nuns to live strictly by Church rules Scholars edited manuscripts to create a library His advisors were drawn from the clergy Encouraged all his subjects to live in perfect peace and charity
Charlemagne wanted the title “emperor”. The title gave the ruler a special relationship with God. The only emperor recognized by the Church was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
A Pope in Trouble
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor during a coronation or crowning ceremony in appreciation for being given protection when rivals tried to blind and remove him from office. The coronation strengthened the power of the Church in W. Europe by establishing the principle that only the pope could crown an emperor. The Byzantine emperor saw the above as an insult and created a growing division between the Eastern and Western Churches.
Pope Leo III
Empress Irene of Constantinople was upset that Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of Rome, when she felt that was really her role.
A Study in Conflict
Pope v. Emperor
Charlemagne believed that God made him emperor in order to do God’s work and the Pope’s duty to assist him. Pope Leo believed that the Church had made Charlemagne emperor, and therefore the emperor’s duty to assist the Church. These views, 200 years later, led to a clash between the Emperor and Pope…
The Holy Roman Empire
After the collapse of Charlemagne’s empire, the German lands to the east were divided among a number of dukes. The German king had little power over the nobles. Otto the Great decided to increase his power. He built a small empire by making alliances with other nobles. He persuaded the pope to crown him Holy Roman Emperor. He used the Church to support his authority.
A Strong-Willed Pope
1073 a monk named Hildebrand became Pope Gregory VII. He had strong ideas and issued a list of rules. He declared his supreme authority over both Church and secular leaders. He declared that the pope alone had the power to choose bishops. He claimed the power to remove emperors from the throne.
A Defiant Ruler
A clash between the Pope and Henry IV occurred when Henry ignored the pope’s rules and named his own bishop for Milan, Italy. In response the Pope appointed a rival bishop. Henry tried to remove the Pope. The Pope excommunicated Henry and feed his subjects from their feudal oaths of loyalty.
Across Europe, members of the clergy and secular rulers took sides. In an effort to end his (Henry’s) excommunication, Henry visited the pope and, as the story goes, was made to wait three days in the snow. The pope finally forgave him, but the conflict continued long after Pope Gregory and Henry had died. In 1122 the Church and the Holy Roman Empire reached an agreement called the Concordat of Worms. This agreement gave the Church the sole authority to appoint bishops. Emperors could give fiefs to bishops in order to win their loyalty.
Kings, Nobles, and the Magna Carta Sec. 2
Section Focus Question: How did the Norman Conquest set in motion a chain of events that changed English rule and law?
The Norman Conquest
During the Viking expansion Norman’s settled in Normandy, France and the dukes became great feudal lords. In time they wanted new lands to rule…
Norman Claims on England
The Normans were interested in England… England was ruled by a weak king, Edward the Confessor whose grandfather had been a Norman duke and he had grown up in Normandy. The noble family the Godwins held the real power. On Edward’s deathbed he promised the crown to Harold Godwin, but William, duke of Normandy, claimed that Edward had already promised him the crown. Harold became king, but he faced rivals.
William the Conqueror
In late September 1066, William of Normandy, became William the Conqueror. Invaded southern England. He fought King Harold, killing Harold and his brothers, ending Anglo-Saxon rule in England. On Christmas Day 1066, William was crowned king of England.
The Norman Conquest transformed England. King William introduced a strong feudal system. The Battle of Hastings wiped out many great AngloSaxon noble families. William gave their lands to 180 Norman barons, concentrating wealth and power in a very small group. England now had a new ruling class.
Limits on Royal Power
King John – King of England Descendant of William the Conqueror. 1199, a new ruler became king of England. Claimed to rule Normandy in France. By 1204, John had lost control over most of his French lands.
He needed an army; he needed $. To get $ he increased taxes which led to a conflict with his barons…
By 1215, England's leaders had had enough of King John’s high taxes and military failures. Barons forced the king to approve a document, The Magna Carta (meaning “Great Charter”) that promised them certain rights. After signing the Magna Carta he could no longer collect more taxes without the approval of the barons. It made it clear that even a king must abide by the law of the land.
In England, the law of the land was a mix of old Anglo-Saxon common law, Norman French feudal law, and Church law.
Important ideas to come out of English common law:
Habeas corpus – “produce the body” – A jailer who receives a “writ” (court order) must either release the prisoner or present good reason for keeping that person in jail.
The Magna Carta gave birth to Europe’s oldest representative assembly, the English Parliament (an assembly of representatives who make laws). It is a law-making body divided into two houses: The House of the Lords – represented nobles The House of the Commons – represented knights and town leaders
Religious Crusades – Sec.3
Section 3 Focus Question: What were the causes and effects of the Crusades
Crusades Against Muslims
Palestine is the Holy Land: the place where Jesus lived and died. Three groups claimed Palestine: Christians, Jews, and Muslims. 40 years Muslim caliphs let Christian pilgrims visit holy places in peace. 1071, the Turks took over Jerusalem – frequent harassment of Christians occurred. The Seljuk Turks marched on Constantinople.
Call for Crusade
The Byzantine emperor asked Pope Urban II for help.
The pope was eager to join the fight…he called for a crusade (Christian religious war), with him as the head of the army. 1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade to reclaim the Holy Land. 150,000 people hurried to join the crusade.
Made up of a ragged mob of peasants, including women and elderly men. Few reached Jerusalem. Next came armies of knights. By 1099 the First Crusade had captured Jerusalem.
The Crusader’s Creed
Since Jesus was every Christian’s Lord, his vassals were obliged to defend his lands and shrines…so, a crusade was a just or righteous war. Crusade comes from the Latin word “cross” Crusaders were promised forgiveness for sins if the became a pilgrim on a crusade. People who “took the cross” made many sacrifices.
Europeans mounted three more crusades, but none matched the victories of the First Crusade. Second Crusade: Tried to take the state of Edessa – King Louis VII of France and the German emperor organized this crusade. Eleanor of Aquitaine was also on this crusade – the crusade failed. Third Crusade: Rules of England, France, and Germany – fought against Muslim leader Saladin. Fourth Crusade: Disgraced the ideas of crusades. Soldiers never reached the Holy Land. 1212 The Children’s Crusade: Attracted people of all ages. Most never got farther than Italy. Many children were sold as slaves.
Effects of the Crusades
Opened the eyes of Europeans to the rest of the world. Peasants and some nobles saw new lands, peoples, and ways of life. Encouraged trade with the East. Prompted Europeans to explore other parts of the world.
Religious Persecutions Crusades also brought terror, destruction, and bloodshed.
Persecution of Jews
The Jews were the main target of attacks in Europe. They were viewed as enemies of the Christian faith. During the First Crusade, bands of knights terrorized the Jewish communities. A few churchmen tried to protect the Jews. Jews were expelled from England in 1290 and from France in 1306.
Other targets of religious persecution included groups of Christians who followed various heresies. Heretics were considered “lost sheep” and doomed for eternity and dangerous because others might follow their beliefs. Heretics were first excommunicated, but this didn’t stop them….so…. In the 1200s, Pope Gregory IV created the Inquisition, which was a Church court designed to investigate and judge heretics. Heretics were punished in various ways: Fasting Whipping Fines or Imprisonment Executed
Christians and Muslims in Spain – Sec. 4 Section Focus Question: How did the rise and fall of Muslim rule alter life in Spain?
Spain Under Muslim Rule
The Umayyad rulers of the Islamic Empire were overthrown and murdered in 750. One survivor fled to Spain and in 756, he, Abd alRahman, established a new dynasty at Cordoba. This dynasty ruled most of Spain for nearly 300 years.
Muslims in Spain were known as Moors. Moorish Spain became one of the most advanced medieval civilizations in Europe. In the 10th century, the Muslim capital of Cordoba was Europe’s largest city.
A Multicultural Society
The Golden Age of Moorish culture reached its peak in the ninth and tenth centuries. Foreign students flocked to Cordoba.
Studied philosophy, music, and medicine.
Cordoba was home to two of the most famous philosophers of the Middle Ages. Ibn Rushd Averroes
Most of Spain’s Muslim were quite tolerant of Jews and Christians. Non-Muslims only had to follow certain rules and pay a special tax.
Decline of Muslim rule in Spain began in about 1002 with a Civil war. Cordoba caliphate was split into small weak kingdoms. The Christians kingdoms in northern Spain were united by 1050. The pope encouraged them to win back the rest of Spain for Christendom. The movement to drive the Muslims from Spain was called the RECONQUISTA.
The first step was the capture of the city of Toledo in 1085. Cordoba fell in 1236. By the middle of the 13th century, all that was left of Moorish Spain was the kingdom of Granada.
Unification of Spain
In 1469 and important royal marriage took place…
Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of CastileLeon. Marriage unified Spain’s largest Christian kingdoms. They concentrated on conquering Granada, the last Muslim territory. When it fell in 1492, the pope was delighted.
Until the late 1300s, Jews had lived quite safely in Christian kingdoms. Anti-Jewish attacks began – terrified, many Jews converted. Isabella and Ferdinand were determined to unite Spain as a Catholic country. They brought in a Dominican monk to head the Spanish Inquisition. It used terror and torture against Jews and Muslims.
In 1492, the rulers ordered all Jews to leave Spain. Portugal did the same. Many Spanish Jews moved to Italy and the Ottoman Empire. Later the Muslims were asked to leave. The loss of these two groups caused economic harm to Spain’s economy.