January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
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A huge problem Eye witness testimony  Witnesses are not always right, even if they are certain  Picking the wrong “rapist”  How could this happen? 

Memory Overview Receives information from senses  Puts that information into a usable form  Organizes it as it is stored away  Retrieves it when needed 

Three Processes Encoding – getting the info and then transforming it into a form that the brain can retain  Storage – holding the info  Retrieval – pulling it out 

Three Models 

Information-processing- way that information is handled Levels of processing – how long and how intensely we work with a memory determines how well we retain and retrieve it Parallel distributed processing – we remember things in many different forms all at once, in parallel

Information processing view 




Short-term memory 

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Temporary storage of information you have just experienced Lasts for about 20-30 seconds, unless rehearsed Holds 7 (plus or minus 2) items, like a crowded elevator holds passengers Can be effectively extended by memorizing information in chunks – meaningful units Maintenance rehearsal – repeating the same thing over and over

Long-term memory     

Unlimited capacity Lasts (usually) as long as you do Weakened by interference Also vulnerable to loss of retrieval cues Usually located in the frontal lobes Meaningful, distinctive material goes in quickly

Sensory memory  

The first stage of memory A very brief representation of all stimuli present to us This is what we see briefly around us, we need to put into short or long term to retain it Selective attention will transfer this information into short term memory

Echoic memory   

Brief memory that someone said something This helps us have meaningful conversations Helps us remember what a person said to be able to continue the discussion

Retroactive interference 

Retroactive interference – work with new material makes old material harder to remember Final exams. Going back to an old phone, previous car…

The crucial focus “How does this information apply to some experience in my own life?”  Make it your own and it will be yours forever.  Also known as elaborative rehearsal 

Long-term memory storage 

To improve our memory we must improve the way we store information Just repeating things, over and over again, will not help us remember them We must process (work with) them deeply, by focusing on meaning

Procedural memories 

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Memory of skills, procedures, habits, even conditioned responses There are plenty of things that we can easily do, but have great difficulty describing Very hard to “forget” Riding a bike, typing, tying a tie, etc. Tested patients with Alzheimer's showed no loss of memory of these skills

Declarative memory   

General facts and personal information Long term memory Conscious and known

More memory types 

Semantic – memory of general principles  Information

learned through education

Episodic – memory of specific events  Specific

to you, events of your day..

Encoding specificity 

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Associations formed while learning are the most effective retrieval cues This classroom This time of day Same chair Same people

Where were you? President Kennedy’s assassination

The Challenger explosion

But research conducted in the wake 9/11, show that even these memories decay 

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