Memory Disorders

January 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology
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Why Our Memory Fails Us Psychology Miss Gardner

Warm-Up 

What are some reasons that our memory might fail us?

Memory Disorders Overview 

Any illness can cause memory ipairment

Any time that concentration is disrupted, memory will be affected

Disorders that affect the memory number around 50.

Alzheimer’s Disease 

Progressive deterioration of the brain


No known cause

Main effects on memory


Alzheimer’s Disease 

Symptoms: 1. Unawareness of memory problems 2. Confusion 3. Short-term question repetition 4. Getting lost in familiar areas 5. Forgetting a) who they are b) memories from younger years c) meaning of words d) simple tasks

Treatment for Alzheimer’s 

No known cure

Mental exercises as prevention

Medications for symptoms

Investigation of supplements (fish oil, etc.)

Amnesia Overview 

Definition: Loss of memory

Temporary or permanent

Causes: injury, shock, fatigue, illness, repression, or drugs

Amnesia in the Movies

Anterograde Amnesia 

Occurs after an injury or trauma

Individual cannot form new memories of new events

Implicit memory is preserved


Anterograde Amnesia

Retrograde Amnesia 

Inability to remember events before a trauma or injury

May stretch from minutes to years

Typically worse for events right before the trauma

Retrograde Amnesia

Aphasia 

Definition: The loss of memory for words

Expressive/Motor: Loss of ability to write/speak words

Receptive/Sensory: Loss of memory for meaning of spoken, written words, or symbols Q6ew 

Dissociative Amnesia 

A time period in the past is forgotten because it was traumatic or stressful

Fugue Amnesia 

A person forgets his/her identity

Extremely rare

The person may wake up and suddenly have no sense of who they are. He or she looks in the mirror and sees a stranger. In the wallet or purse the person may find identification, but the name and birth date on the driver's license seem meaningless.

Fugue Amnesia Video Clip

Dissociative Identity Disorder 

A person has “multiple personalities”

They forget events that happen when another personality is present

PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) 

A reaction to a terrifying event where the person suffers from intrusive memories

Caused by events of severe stress- war, murder, disasters.

Most often seen in veterans

Specific Memory Failure

Memory Failure Overview Forgetting








Intrusion Persistence


Penny Exercise Answers 2. The words United States of America  5. The words One Cent  6. The date (year) of the mint  11. The right side of Lincoln’s face  14. The Lincoln Memorial  15. The words In God We Trust  16. The word Liberty  19. The words E Pluribus Unum 

Penny Exercise

Encoding Failure 

Represents a failure to encode.

The details of a penny are not that important to us…absent-mindedness

Also, we think about what should be, not what is.

Capital City Exercise 

Name as many as you can without help.

Write the first few letters if you only remember part of the word.

I will give you a hint.

What type of memory failure does this exercise represent?

Interference 

Proactive Interference- When an older memory disrupts recall of a newer memory.

Retroactive Interference- When a more recent memory disrupts recall of an older memory.

Repression vs. Retrieval Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

Precious Stone: First Fish: Second State: Third Insect: Second Type of Music: First Alcoholic Beverage: Third Color: Second Military Title: Third Article of Clothing: First Sport: Second

11. Musical Instrument: First 12. Four-Footed Animal: Third 13. Occupation: First 14. Weapon: Third 15. Furniture: Second 16. Type of Fuel: Second 17. Disease: First 18:Vegetable: Third 19. Type of Vehicle: Second 20. Body Part: First

Memory Construction 

Have you ever had a strong, vivid memory and later learned you were wrong (or realized that what you remember could not have happened)? If so, write it down.

Why do you think this occurred?

We will share our answers…

Constructs 

A complex idea resulting from the combination of simpler ideas

Not directly observable

Something built systematically

Constantly changing

Answer the following in groups: 

What if the simpler ideas/experiences from which we construct our memories are not all accurate?

What does this mean for our identity?

War of the Ghosts 

We slightly alter images, memories, and ideas to fit into our own method of understanding/remembering

Listen very carefully!

How/Why does our memory transform material? Accepted/conventional representations - That couldn’t have been a wolf…it was a dog  Some features cannot be labeled until a recognized form is produced -If it doesn’t fit anything that we know/are used to, we have trouble recognizing or remembering it…chemistry anyone? 

Bartlett’s Conclusions After first recall, the general form or outline stays the same  Form and items become stereotyped and then don’t change  Story is rationalized (westernized)symbolization  We simplify, omit, and transform images into things we recognize 

Misinformation Effect 

Incorporating misleading information into a memory.


Eyewitness Testimony Identify the bomber on the roof… theeyewitnesstest.html 

Child Testimony 

Imagine that you are a therapist or attorney who needs to interview a child about a possible case of abuse. Describe the procedure that you would use to ensure that the answers are as accurate as possible.

Is Repression Real? 

Our memories are anchored by context cues…If we dig deep enough, we can retrieve them.

Improving Memory Group Exercise 

Develop a study plan for a student using 4-5 of the memory techniques in your book.

Imagine that the student has a psychology test approaching, and they want a detailed plan of methods, techniques, and examples that they can use to succeed on this exam.

View more...


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