Merchant`s Role in Cottage Industry

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Colonial History (1600-1775)
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Topic 3:

The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)


Latin America

Farming in the Middle Ages:

Enclosure Movement:

Crop Rotation: Disadvantages:

Other Discoveries:

Forces for change: Results of the Agricultural Revolution:



Farming in the Middle Ages:

•Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming) •One of three fields left fallow (empty_ to regain fertility

•Animals grazed in common pastures Disadvantages: •Land use was inefficient

•Farmers didn’t experiment with new farming methods. Forces for change: •Population growing- more food is needed

•French blockade- no corn- more food is needed.

Enclosure Movement: •Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and experimented with new farming technology •Villages lost common lands and political power, peasants became poorer Crop Rotation: •Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop replenished by planting different crops

•Fields not left inefficiently fallow. Other Discoveries: • Seed drill planted seeds efficiently •New crops: Corn and potato Results of the Agricultural Revolution: •More food available •Population increased

Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry:

Textile Industry Invented:


Rise of the Factory:

Effects of the Cottage Industry:

Effects of Textile Factories in Britain:



Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry: •Supplied materials- wool and cotton- to cottages to be carded and spun

•Took supplies from spinning cottage to weaving cottage to dying cottage to sell finished cloth •Merchants sell product for mote than material and labor costs= profit +larger investment= higher profit.

Capitalism: •An economic system based on private ownership, free competition, and profit •Cottage industry is an example of early capitalism. Effects of the Cottage Industry: •Big profits for new class of merchants •Alternative source of income for peasants

Shift from Cottage Industry to Factory Work

Illustration of scavengers and piecers at work

Textile Industry Invented: •Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles •Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improved spinning •Power loom sped up weaving •Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton Rise of the Factory: •New machines, often too big for homes, were put in factories •Factories located new power source: coal, iron, water Effects of Textile Factories in Britain:

•Prices of mass-produced textiles were much lower than hand produced items •Britain’s textile industry increased enormously •‘Majority of villagers forced to leave to find work in urban factories.

The Need for Energy:

The Need for Iron:

How the Steam Engine Worked:

The Need for Coal:

Effect of Steam Engine:

Effect of Iron and Coal:



The Need for Energy: •Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water mills

•Steam engine evolved in response to the increasing need for power How the Steam Engine Worked:

•Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power Effect of Steam Engine: •Steam Power, used wherever coal existed, increased textile production •Improved mining which increased metal which in turn fueled other industries

The Need for Iron: • Farming tools, new factory machinery, railways •Smelting makes iron more pure, but requires carbon

The Need for Coal: •Carbon necessary for smelting iron •Steam engines powered by coal Effect of Iron and Coal: •Britain produced more iron than all other countries of the world combined •Coal powered Britain’s enormous navy.

The Need for Better Transportation:


Government: Inventions:

Social Factors:

Effects of Railroads: Colonial Empire:


Advantages of Industrializing First::

The Need for Better Transportation: •Increased production increased need to transport goods quickly and cheaply •Pre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and dirt roads Inventions: • Stone and eventually asphalt roads

•Canals •Railroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829 Effects of Railroads: •Expanded rapidly throughout Britain •Cheaper transportation increased production and profits •Railways fueled other industries: Coal, steam engines, iron, steel, and many manufactured products

Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution

Geography: •Climate good for textile production •Plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal •Separation from the European continent kept them out of wars

Government: •Internal trade encouraged •Population allowed to relocate •Helped build canals and roads Social Factors: •British society less rigid than other European countries Colonial Empire: •Supplied raw material for manufactured goods •Provided market for goods Advantages of Industrializing First: •No other countries competing for manufactured goods •Monopoly on technology

Sensory Figures What do I see? What do I hear?

What do I feel? What do I say?

What do I smell?

What do I touch?

Expanding economy

Large population increase

Many natural resources

Industry Develops in Great Britain

Highly developed banking systems Causes

Political Stability

Factors of production

Creativity & new inventions Effects

Crop Rotation

•New agricultural methods •Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to cities No more exhausted farm land

Inventions in Textiles

Took spinning & weaving out of house and into factories

Transportation Improvements

Steam engine, steamboat, road transportation, & locomotive


Increased industrial growth, boosted agricultural & fishing industry, thousands of new jobs, & travel made easier (country to city)

Enclosure Movement

Upper Class: rich entrepreneurs, factory owners, merchants, bankers

Upper Middle Class: Government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers of factories Lower Middle Class: factory overseers, skilled workers, printers Working Class: Laborers

Industrial Changes Positive Effects Earn higher wages Heat homes (could afford it)

Better food Better clothing Created jobs England’s economy grew

Negative Effects Living conditions Working conditions Alcoholism Class tensions Domestic violence inc. Pollution

My book is called The Wealth of Nations __________ The economic policy I support is

Capitalism ____________.

The pamphlet I co-authored is called Communist Manifesto ___________ The economic policy I support is Socialism ___________

Britain’s Steps Toward Democracy

Chapter 26

•Vote extended to most male property owners •Redistribution of seats in House of commons •Slavery abolished in Britain and British colonies

•Removal of religious restrictions

•Trade unions legalized •Fewer than 5% of the population has the right to vote •Politics dominated by wealthy men •Religious restrictions on voting and holding office •Rotten boroughs

•Vote extended to include most men •Secret ballot introduced •Reforms in public housing & health •Free elementary education for all children

•Vote extended to working-class men

•Vote extended to all women

•Vote extended to women over 30

•Restrictions on power of the House of Lords

When? 1800s Where? Britain Organizations? Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) Accomplishments? •organized the movement •brought attention to the cause • success was gradual, right to vote does not come until after WWI

Anti-Semitism • Definition: prejudice against Jews •The Dreyfus Affair- Jewish Officer Dreyfus, France, accused of selling military secrets to Germany- found guilty, but evidence shows he was framed •Leads to widespread anti- Semitism in Europe- pogroms An anti-Dreyfus poster: Jews are being driven out of France. The caption reads: "Long live France! Long live the Army! Down with the Jews! Death to the traitors!" The poster also calls for a boycott of Jewish shops.

•Rise of Zionism- movement for a homeland in Palestine


What? 19th-century Britain, members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men.

Where? Britain

When? 19th-century (1838)

Accomplishments? By the early 1900s: Suffrage for all men & secret ballot

Who? English Naturalist (Scientist) Ideas? •Survival of the Fittest •Theory of Evolution

When? Late 19th-century

Accomplishments? •Wrote book: The Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)

Overview of Imperialism

Make a Web of the Factors Enabling the Scramble for Africa

Military Force: Better Technology

Racism: Social Darwinism

Railways and Steam Engines: travel inland

Cultural and Language Diversity: over 1000 languages

Need Raw Materials to Industrialize: diamonds, gold, ivory

Ethnic and Tribal Problems and Rivalries


• Laid rules for dividing Africa b/t Europeans (NO African leaders) • Divided with NO REGARD to native culture, language, or ethnicity • Carved Africa into pieces (only 2 left independent)

Dutch Settlers

Cape Colony Slave Trade Invade Lands

Boer War: • Dutch and British fight over diamonds and gold • British win and control South Africa

Largest tribe in S. Africa

Review of Ottoman Empire: •Capture Constantinople from the Byzantines in 1451 •Convert the church Hagia Sophia into a mosque •Suleiman the Lawgiver- expanded the empire and created a highly structured government •Culture flourishes under Suleiman’s leadership

• Later: poor economy, weak leaders, weak nationalism

Muslim states failed to keep European imperialists out of their lands.

Ottoman Empire tries to reform but fails.

Egyptian leaders cannot complete modernization. Suez Canal

Persia falls to economic imperialism. GEOPOLITICS

Geography Application




Wanted access to Persian Took territories Gulf and Indian Ocean from Persia by force


Wanted Afghanistan as a barrier between Russia and India

Took Afghanistan by force


Wanted to raise capital to develop resources

Sold concessions to Europe

Which two bodies of water are joined by the Suez Canal?

Why was the building of this canal important?

Where is the canal?

Chapter 28: Transformations Around the Globe


& China

Internal Problems

•Overpopulation •Widespread Hunger •Opium Addiction


1839 Opium War

1842 Treaty of Nanjing

External Problems

•Foreign Influence •Became Sphere of Influence to many European Powers & US

1850-1864 Taiping Rebellion

1899 Open Door Policy

1900 Boxer Rebellion


The Opium Wars

The Taiping Rebellion

Date Foreign Powers

1839 Britain

Effects of Event

Changes Made in China

•Chinese addiction to •opium •B refuse to stop trading opium with Chinese

•C defeated •Treaty of NanjingHong Kong

•Extraterritorial rights

British China’s poverty 1853 French

The US Open Door 1899 Policy

The Boxer Rebellion

Causes of Event


•20 mil. Chinese •Inc. died foreign •Short lived pressure Taiping Govt.

•US fears of external •Protected US •Inc. foreign trading rights forces colonizing presence •Prevented C from China

•Frustration US & 1900 European w/foreigners •poverty Nations

•being colonized

•Nationalism Reform •Established movements Constitutional government

China resists foreign influence China falls to foreign influence China rebels against foreign influence



Japan Under Shogun Rule After AD 1000 Japan became increasingly feudalized, with various regions controlled by lords who retained samurai (warrior noblemen) to protect them and their property. In the late 12th century, the Minamoto family, led by Yoritomo, was one of the most powerful bands of samurai. After Yoritomo defeated a strong rival clan, the emperor of Japan gave Yoritomo the title of shogun (military commander in chief). The military form of government in Japan, known as the shogunate, survived through several dynasties until its demise in 1867.

Japanese Samurai in Armor

A distinct social class, the samurai served powerful chiefs called shoguns, who ruled Japan from the 12th century until 1867. The samurai lived by a rigid code of conduct called Bushido, or “the way of the warrior,” which encompassed ideals of loyalty and sacrifice.

Japanese Feudal Society

Emperor- No Power Shogun- Actual Ruler Daimyo- Landowners Samurai- defenders Peasants, Artisans, Merchants

•Japan expels missionaries, persecutes Japanese Christians

•Portuguese arrive in Japan (1543)

•Japan bars Western merchants and bans foreign travel

•Spanish, Dutch, and English traders arrive

•Foreign trade severely limited •Japan’s only contact with the West comes through annual visit of a few Dutch merchant ships •Internal trade booms •Cities Grow •Japan is forced to reopen relations with the West (1853)

Japan Shuts the Door (Early 1600s)

•Japan acquires knowledge of European weapons and ideas •Christian missionaries arrive •Japan fears presence of missionaries will bring conquest by Western powers •Japan suspects Japanese Christians will be loyal to Church instead of nation.

odernization W esternization

mperialism apan ndustrialization

Industrialized Increased coal production

RR (1872)

Studied Western ways

Universal public education

Meiji Era

Modernized military

Strong centralized government



Claimed feudal lands for government Studied Western ways Industrialized

Abolished extraterritorial rights Forced Korean ports to open Fought Sino-Japanese and RussoJapanese wars Annexed Korea

China •Remains committed to traditional values •Loses numerous territorial conflicts •Grants other nations spheres of influence within China •Finally accepts necessity for reform

Both •Have wellestablished traditional values •Initially resist change •Oppose Western imperialism

Japan •Considers modernization to be necessary •Borrows and adapts Western ways •Strengthens its economic and military power •Becomes an empire builder

Meiji Changes 1. Military Forces:



•Imperial Japanese Army


•Well-trained •Well-armed •Strongest military power in Asia

2. Military Technology:


3. Ruler (s):



Tokugawa Shogun

4. Political System:


Military dictatorship


Modernized (modeled German Army & British navy) To

Mutsuhito (Emperor) To

Emperor (Centralized Government)

Meiji Changes 5. People’s Participation in Gov’t.:


6. Economy:




7. Industry:


Tea processing & Silk production


Constitution (Representation) To

Modern World Market (Industrial) To

Industrial (RR’s, factories, ship building, etc.)

Meiji Changes 8. Education:


No standards


Universal Public Education

9. Gender Roles:



Tough restrictions (Women escorted when travel)

Women: Some rts. But segregates facilities

10. Land Ownership:



11. Cultural Pursuits:




Nobility controlled (wealth) To

Discover Western ways

• Learned from the West, Sent people to study in the West •Invited Western experts to aid in development •Had strong central governments

• Resisted Western influence •Western experts came in to represent Western companies

•Had weak governments

•Had well-organized bureaucracies

•Faced power struggles within governments

•Adopted Western business and banking methods

•Western investors controlled economies

• Built railroads

•Westerners built and owned railroads

•Improved ports

•Developed industry- factories became organized into monopolies •Introduced social reform

•Westerners developed and controlled ports •Economies depended on one crop or resource •Retained old social systems

Latin America

Latin America After Independence: •Majority of Latin American nations remained poor

•Rise of military dictators (Caudillos)

•Latin Americans often worked for large landowners (workers went into debt) •Debt was passed on from generation to generation (generational poverty)

•Latin Americans lacked a voice in government

•Unequal distribution of wealth and land in Latin America prevented social and economic development

Latin America & Foreign Influence •Britain & US main trading partners •Not self-sufficient •Borrowed money from foreign countries (unable to pay back loans) •Foreign lenders threatened to take facilities that they funded by force (increased foreign presence) •New age of economic colonialism emerged in Latin America

The US & Latin America Why did the US have an interest in Latin America other than for money? 

The security of the US depended on the security of Latin America.

What was the Monroe Doctrine? Document created by President James Monroe in 1823 that stated that, “the American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” 

How was the Panama Canal built & what was America’s role in its creation?  The

US encouraged and supported Panama to fight for independence from Columbia. As a result the US was given the rights to connect the Pacific & Atlantic Oceans by way of the Panama Canal. It opened in 1914.

The Roosevelt Corollary •Created in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to protect the economic interests of the US in Latin America.

•It stated that the Corollary gave the US the right to be an, “international police power in the Western Hemisphere.”

President Theodore Roosevelt

“Walk quietly & carry a big stick…”

Mexican Revolution Flag_of_Mexico.svg (SVG file, nominally 1400 × 800 pixels, file size: 524 KB)

Leader Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Benito Juarez Porfirio Diaz

Major Accomplishment 1833 Mexican President Started Liberal reform movement RR’s, banks, currency stabilized, & foreign investments

Francisco Madero

Ousted Diaz/Called for democracy

Emiliano Zapata

“Land & Liberty”

Pancho Villa

Robin hood policy

Venustiano Carranza

Adopted present day constitution & ended civil war

China Form of Imperialism Encountered


Latin America

Sphere of influence

Sphere of influence

Economic Imperialism

Concessions to Imperialist Powers

•Hong Kong

•End of isolationism

•Panama Canal

Internal Problems

•Overpopulation •Widespread hunger

•Opium Addiction Modernizing Effort

Impact of Imperialism

Sent citizens abroad to study Western govts.

Creation of constitutional government

•Need for resources

•Lack of technology •feudal lands for govt. •Studied western ways

•Lack of industrialization •People in debt •Poverty Panama Canal


•Meiji Restoration •Industrialized •Adopted Western ways

US dominant force in Latin America

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