MODERN+BRITAIN(1)

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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MODERN BRITAIN

The Fall of the Empire The Commonwealth The Windsors Churchill, Thatcher British Parliament and Government Today

The Fall of the Empire

• • • • •

A free association of sovereign states No empire has been larger The Irish War of Independence Many nations wanted independence The UK was heavily in debt to the USA

World War I • • • •

One of the world’s largest industrial powers Victory brought new territories A global military conflict The proximate cause - 28.06.1914 the assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria • The end of four major imperial powers • The Treaty of Versailles

World War II • The Munich Pact in 1938 • Hitler and Stalin’s secret agreement • 3.09.1939 – the declaration of war • In 1942 Roosevelt and Churchill’s agreement

• 1945 Germany surrendered unconditionally • Great Britain lost 300,000 fighting men and over 60,000 civilians

The Commonwealth of Nations • an intergovernmental institution • was established in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster • 53 member states • Were a part of the British Empire • human rights, individual liberty, world peace

Common information • 1/3 of world’s population • about 31,500,000 km2 • flag – March 26, 1976

• Kamalesh Sharma - Secretary-General • the Head of Commonwealth - Elizabeth II

The House of Windsor • Current Royal House of the United Kingdom and each of the other Commonwealth realms. • Remains one of the few dynasties to have ruled over lands on all continents simultaneously. • Current head: Elizabeth II

Origins • Created from a British branch of a German royal house in 1917. • German influence brought by Queen Victoria's husband Prince Albert (the name of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha).

• Anti-German movement convinced the royal family to abandon all German titles and use the name Windsor instead. • The name change helped to preserve the loyalty of the British people.

The line of Succession to the British Throne • • • • • • • •

Prince Charles (age 60) Prince William (age 26) Prince Henry/Harry (age 24) Prince Andrew (age 49) Princess Beatrice (age 20) Princess Eugenie (age 19) The Prince Edward (age 45) James Alexander Philip Theo Mountbatten Windsor, Viscount Severn (age 1)

The Royal Family

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965)

• A politician, a noted statesman, an orator, an officer, a historian, a Noble-Prize winner and an amateur artist • Educated in Harrow, Royal Military College at Sandhurst • 1895 - Joined the Fourth Hussars • 1899 - Left the British Army and worked for the Morning Post

Served as Prime Minster of the UK • from 1940 to 1945 • again from 1951 to 1955 Was known for his leadership of the UK during World War II. • Developed an united strategy with the USA and the Soviet Union • Important meetings in Teheran (Nov. 1943) and Yalta (Feb. 1945)

Margaret Hilda Thatcher (1925 -

)

• One of the dominant political figures of 20th century Britain The only woman who has been • The prime minister of the United Kingdom (1979 - 1990) • The leader of the Conservative Party (1975 - 1990)

• Went to Oxford University, became a research chemist • 1959 - became Conservative MP • 1974 - became the leader of the Conservative party • 1979 - became the prime minister • 1984 - the IRA planted a bomb in Brighton • 1990 - resigned • 1992 - left the House of Commons for the House of Lords

British Parliament and Government today The politics of the UK • constitutional monarchy • the Monarch is head of state (Elizabeth II) • the Prime Minister is the head of government (Gordon Brown) • the legislature – Parliament • the executive – Prime Minister and Cabinet (Government)

The business of Parliament • democratically elected house – the House of Commons, 646 members • internally elected house – the House of Lords, 738 members • meet in the Palace of Westminster, sometimes called the Houses of Parliament

The Palace of Westminster

Government • formed by the party with majority support in the Commons. • about 20 ministers make up the Cabinet • the second largest party forms the official Opposition, „shadow cabinet”

Gordon Brown the head of government

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