January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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MR. LIPMAN’S APUS POWERPOINT FOR CHAPTER 11 The Peaceful Revolution and the March to War 1800-1812

Jefferson (Republicans) vs. Adams & Burr (Federalists)

Election of 1800 saw a divided Federalist Party challenged by Jefferson’s emerging DemocraticRepublican Party

• Federalists attacks on Jefferson: – Robbed a widow and children of trust fund – Fathered mulatto children with his female slaves – Atheist (because of his successful struggle to separate church and state in Virginia)

• Jefferson vs. Burr – Same number of electoral votes in the election – This election would lead to passage of the 12th Amendment – Jefferson wins close vote house to become third President- Hamilton makes it happen (sees Jefferson as lesser evil than Burr)

• March 4, 1801 – Jefferson’s inauguration – Address tries to bring Democratic-Republicans and Federalists together

• “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” – Spoke of majority rule with minority rights – Recognized the significance of his election and the peaceful transfer of power which had not existed in the world before this

• Jefferson’s moderate changes – Undid anti-French hysteria of Alien and Sedition Acts: – pardoned those jailed and passed the Naturalization Act of 1802 (citizenship reduced from 14 years back to 5 years) – Repealed excise tax that hurt farm supporters – Appointed Albert Gallatin as very good secretary of the treasury

• Judiciary Act of 1801 – Last major act of the Federalist Congress (before replaced by a Republican majority) – 16 new federal judgeships were created – Adams signed judgeships up to last day in office • Known as the “midnight judges,” story that Adams had stayed up late on his last night in office signing the judicial appointments

Seen as attempt to pack courts with Federalists

• Marbury v. Madison – William Marbury (a “midnight judge”) had been appointed justice of the peace for D.C. – Sued the new secretary of state (Madison) to have appointment delivered

– The Court would have had to issue a “writ of mandamus”, forcing Madison to deliver commission, if Marbury had won – Marshall, a Federalist, is the Chief Justice

Chief Justice John Marshall

– Marshall ruled part of Judiciary Act of 1789 on which lawsuit based was unconstitutional – Marshall dismissed Marbury’s suit • Republicans got what they wanted so they did not oppose Marshall’s claim that he could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional – Marshall asserted the principle that the Supreme Court had the final authority (“judicial review”) Greatly increased the power of the Supreme Court

• Pirates in the North African Barbary States – Blackmailed and stole from merchant ships in the Mediterranean – Washington and Adams had paid tribute (bribes) to the Barbary States for protection – Jefferson reduced the Army & Navy to save money and take fear away that it would be used against the civilian population…so no way to protect the merchant ships – (same thing happening today with pirates)

Four Barbary States of North Africa, c. 1805

• War in North Africa (1801-1805)

–1801 – Tripoli (unhappy with amount of protection money it got from the US) declared war on the US –Jefferson decided to fight and sent Marines to the “shores of Tripoli” –Peace finally came when the US defeated the Africans

The Louisiana Purchase Before 1763 - France claimed Louisiana – 1763 – 1800 – Louisiana belongs to Spain – By treaty (1800) Spain gives Louisiana Territory back to France – 1802 – The Spanish at New Orleans withdrew the right of deposit (warehouse) to farmers

• Early 1803 – Jefferson sent James Monroe to work with ambassador Robert R. Livingston to buy N. Orleans and other lands for up to $10 million – If this failed, instructed them to open negotiations with Britain for an alliance – Napoleon has lost battle of Haiti in slave revolt and decided to sell all land acquired from Spain (unsure of amount) for $15 million – Jefferson agrees even though he doubts Constitution permits this type of deal

The States in the Louisiana Purchase

• Exploring Louisiana Purchase – Spring 1804 – Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s personal secretary) and William Clark (an army officer), with Sacajawea (a Shoshoni woman who served as a guide) set out on a 2 1/2 year exploration of North America • Zebulon Pike – 1805 – 1806 – goes north to the headwaters of Mississippi River – 1806 – 1807 – explored the southern part of Louisiana Purchase

Exploring the Louisiana Purchase and the West

• Aaron Burr and Federalists in New England – Burr was Jefferson’s 1st term vice president, but was dropped in 1804 – Plotted with Federalists to have N. England and N.Y. secede from the US – Hamilton exposed Burr’s plan – An angry Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and killed him (July 11, 1804) – He was indicted for Murder in New Jersey but never brought to trial for the duel – Later charged with treason but found N.G.

• 1803 – renewal of the war in Europe between France and Britain (Napoleon) • 1803 – 1805 – US shipped to both countries and made lots of money • 1805 – Battle of Trafalgar – British admiral Horatio Nelson defeats French and Spanish off the coast of Spain – Cemented Britain’s strength on sea

• 1806 – Orders in Council – Britain closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping (including American) unless they stopped at British ports first (upsets America)

• Impressment used by Britain to restore size of the Navy for war – Forcible enlistment of sailors – 1808 – 1811 – US citizens were impressed by Britain from US merchant ships • Chesapeake affair (June 1807) – British demanded 4 men they claimed were deserters on board the Chesapeake – US commander refused to give up men – British fired at the Chesapeake, severely damaging it, and took the 4 deserters

Jefferson not ready for war so gets Embargo • Late 1807 – the Embargo Act passed – Forbade export of all goods from the US – Jefferson called this “peaceful coercion” – It costs US businessmen dearly and some in N.E. spoke of succession

• Embargo failed and repealed in March 1809 • Why it failed:

–Underestimated the determination of British –Overestimated dependence of Europe on US trade –Underestimated the difficulty of enforcing such an unpopular law (lots of smuggling takes place)

• Election of 1808 – Republicans nominated James Madison – Federalists nominated Charles C. Pinckney

– Madison won with 122 of 175 electoral votes – Despite loss, Federalists gained strength in Congress campaigning against the embargo act

• Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810) – Reopen trade with all the world (including Britain and France) – France promised to respect US shipping

– Britain refused to bargain – Madison re-established embargo against Britain – This was the end of US neutrality and the final step to war

• Tecumseh united Indians east of the Mississippi and called for rejection of treaties • War hawks in Congress believed the British were inciting Indians • Fall 1811 – William Henry Harrison (governor of Indiana territory) – Attacked Tecumseh’s at Tippecanoe and defeated the Indians

• Effects of the Battle of Tippecanoe –Made Harrison a national hero –Drove Tecumseh into alliance with British • These Indians fought fiercely with the British during the War of 1812 –The dream of Indian confederacy died

War of 1812 • Madison believed war with Britain inevitable because of: – British arming of hostile Indians in the west – War hawks’ cries for war and attack to annex Canada – Belief that only war could restore American rights • The US had tried to avoid war and had been insulted by European powers; if the US could not defend itself, the nation was doomed

• June 1, 1812 – Madison gets a declaration of war against England • Support for war came from South and West and Republicans in populous middle states • Federalists opposed the war; strongest in New England – Federalists sympathized with Britain and opposed Napoleon – Federalists did not want to annex Canada as Republicans wanted • Would add more farming land and increase the strength of Republicans

KEYS TO THE CHAPTER 1. Election of 1800 2. Marbury v. Madison 3. Louisiana Purchase 4.Aaron Burr 5. Embargo Act of 1807 6. War Hawks and Tippecanoe

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