New France and France vs Britain

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, The Enlightenment (1650-1800), French Revolution
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Chapter 4

 2.1: Differences in imperial goals, cultures, and the North

American environments that different empires confronted led Europeans to develop diverse patterns of colonization.  2.1-I Seventeenth-century Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers embraced different social and economic goals, cultural assumptions, and folkways, resulting in varied models of colonization  B. French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few

Europeans and used trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians to acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.  Pgs. 108-111

 France: no colonization before the 1600’s  Lots of internal problems (religious civil war) until 1600

 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec  First settlement in New France

 1682 Robert de La Salle explored the Mississippi—

Louisiana  1718 New Orleans founded

 2 parts, Canada and Louisiana  Canada: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg (all of modern-day

Canada plus the Great Lakes region of the US)  Louisiana: New Orleans (all of modern-day central and a lot of the western US)

 Canada: trade with Indians (Beaver)  Louisiana: trade with Indians and grow wheat for the

French Caribbean  Friendly relations with Native Americans

 Jesuits—tried to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism

(didn’t force them to)  Indians incorporated into French society (somewhat) generally not as exploited as in Spanish possessions  Focus was on trading with Indians (contrast with Spanish/English)

 Sparsely populated: only 60-80 thousand French settlers in

mid 1700’s (compared to 1.5 million in English colonies)  Autocratic: no representative government, no trial by jury, no religious toleration

 2.2 European colonization efforts in North America stimulated

intercultural contact and intensified conflict between the various groups of colonizers and native peoples.  A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch,

British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability.  2.2-II Clashes between European and American Indian social

and economic values caused changes in both cultures.  A. Continuing contact with Europeans increased the flow of trade

goods and diseases into and out of native communities, stimulating cultural and demographic changes.  C. By supplying American Indian allies with deadlier weapons and alcohol and by rewarding Indian military actions, Europeans helped increase the intensity and destructiveness of American Indian warfare.  Pages 58, 108-109 in textbook

 European trade  French, Dutch, English all traded with Northeastern

Native American groups  Furs in exchange for clothing, tools, alcohol, firearms  Significant impact on Native American culture, ways of life  Access to furs led to competition for territory among Native American groups  Native American warfare  Different tribes allied with different European powers  Huron, Ottawa, Abenaki, and others allied with France  Iroquois League and others allied with British

 2.2-I Competition over resources between European rivals led to

conflict within and between North American colonial possessions and American Indians.  A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch,

British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability.  B. As European nations competed in North America, their colonies focused on gaining new sources of labor and on producing and acquiring commodities that were valued in Europe.  C. The goals and interests of European leaders at times diverged from those of colonial citizens, leading to growing mistrust on both sides of the Atlantic, as settlers, especially in the English colonies, expressed dissatisfaction over territorial settlements, frontier defense, and other issues.  Pgs. 111-119

 4 colonial wars fought during this time  All pitted France (and Indian allies [Huron]) and

sometimes the Spanish vs the British (and Indian allies [Iroquois])  King William’s War 1689-1697  Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713  King George’s War 1744-1748  French and Indian War 1754-1763

 Colonists and Indians vs colonists and Indians  Very little/no involvement from Europe  Sideshow of larger European conflicts

 British gained possession of the Hudson Bay, Nova

Scotia, and Newfoundland from the French  Treaty of Utrecht 1713

 First conflict to have significant European involvement

in North America (money, soldiers)  Colonists captured the French fortress-city of Louisbourg, but it was returned to France following the peace treaty (exchanged for British losses in India)  Effects on the colonists???  Effects on sense of American identity???

 First time a war started in North America and spread  

to Europe Involved large amounts of European resources (money, soldiers) Fought over control of the Ohio River Valley (modern pay western PA, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan) Began when George Washington encountered French soldiers near Fort Duquesne (modern-day Pittsburgh) British and Iroquois vs French (and Spanish) and Huron

 Albany Conference and the Albany Plan: 1754  7 of the 13 colonies met in Albany to convince the Iroquois to

join the war  Agreed to one commander of colonial forces (British General)  Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan (Albany Plan) to unite the colonies together under British rule (early version of the United States but still British)—never adopted  First step of the colonies working together  Braddock’s Defeat: 1755  Damaged the reputation of the British military in the colonies  Gave rise to the belief that colonies could survive/win without

the Britsh

 Went badly for the British/Americans at first  Braddock’s Defeat 1755  French/Indian attacks on the frontier settlements 1755-

1757  British/Americans defeated in upstate New York  1757 New British Prime Minister (William Pitt) new

strategy  Pay the Americans to fight (cheaper than sending all the

soldiers over from Britain)  Don’t attack the French everywhere, just attack them in Canada  British successful war ends in 1763: British/Americans


 Ended the war  Effects:  French gave all of Canada and Eastern half of Louisiana

to the British  Spanish gave Florida to the British  To repay the Spanish for the loss of Florida the French gave the western half of Louisiana to the Spanish  No more French in North America

 Wars cost money, Britain had a large amount of debt  How do governments pay off their debts?

 Indians no longer could play the French and British

against each other—didn’t like this situation  Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763

 Indian rebellion defeated by British but  British stationed soldiers to protect against further

Indian attacks—cost money, led to . . .. .  British prohibited European settlement west of the Appalachian mountains—Proclamation of 1763

 Question: In what ways did the French and Indian War

contribute to the American Revolution?  Financially?  Other ways?  American identity, examples?

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