Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZ)
Download Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZ)...
Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZ) Presentation made by Jayantha Dhanapala President, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
What is a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone? • A regional arrangement in accordance with Chapt VIII of the UN Charter that prohibits the development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, possession, stationing and control of any nuclear explosive device within the zone of application by any contracting party. It also prohibits the assistance in research in all of the areas mentioned above. However, peaceful application of nuclear energy is allowed in these zones. • The parties to the NWFZ receive assurances from the five NPT nuclear-weapon states (NWS) through the ratification of relevant protocols to the treaties, to respect the status of these Zones and not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against states parties to NWFZ treaties.
Article VII of the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) “Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories”.
The UN General Assembly definition of NWFZs of 1975. UNGA Resolution 3472 B (XXX), adopted on November 11, 1975: " A nuclear-weapon-free zone shall, as a general rule, be deemed to be any zone, recognized as such by the United Nations General Assembly, which any groups of states, in the free exercise of their sovereignty, have established by virtue of a treaty or convention whereby: a. The statute of a total absence of nuclear weapons to which the zone shall be subject, including the procedure for the delimitation of the zone is defined; b. An international system of verification and control is established to guarantee compliance with obligations derived from that statute."
1999 UN Disarmament Commission report on the objectives, purposes, principles, and guidelines for establishing NWFZs. • NWFZ should be established on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned. • The initiative to establish a NWFZ should emanate exclusively from States within the region concerned and be pursued by all States of that region. • The NWS should be consulted during the negotiations of each treaty and its relevant protocol(s) establishing a NWFZ in order to facilitate their signature to and ratification of the relevant protocol(s) to the treaty, through which they undertake legally binding commitments to the status of the zone and not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against States parties to the treaty.
• A NWFZ should not prevent the use of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes and could also promote, if provided for in the treaties establishing such zones, bilateral, regional and international cooperation for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the zone, in support of socio-economic, scientific and technological development of the States parties.
First Special Session of the General Assembly on Disarmament (1978) - A/S10/4 Final document of SSOD-I • 33. The establishment of nuclear-weaponfree zones on the basis of agreements or arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the zone concerned and the full compliance with those agreements or arrangements, thus ensuring that the zones are genuinely free from nuclear weapons, and respect for such zones by nuclear-weapon States constitute an important disarmament measure.
The 2010 NPT REVCON on NWFZ Article VII and the security of NWFZ The Conference; 98) reaffirms the conviction that the establishment of the internationally recognized NWFZ on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned enhances global and regional peace and security, strengthens the nuclear non-proliferation regime and contributes towards realizing the objectives of nuclear disarmament. 99) welcomes the steps taken since 2005 to conclude NWFZ treaties and recognizes the continuing contributions that the Antarctic Treaty, the Treaty of Tlatelolco, Treaty of Rarotonga, the Bangkok Treaty, the Pelindaba Treaty, and the Treaty on a NWFZ in Central Asia are making towards attaining the objective of nuclear disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation. 100)The Conference welcomes Mongolia of its NWF status….
Nuclear Weapons Free Zones • 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco for Latin America and the Caribbean (entered into force in 1969 ) • 1985 Treaty of Rarotonga for the South Pacific, (entered into force in 1986 ) • 1995 Treaty of Bangkok for Southeast Asia, (entered into force in 1997)
• 1996 Pelindaba Treaty for the entire continent of Africa, (entered into force in 2009) • 2006 Treaty of Semipalatinsk for Central Asia (entered into force in 2009) • Mongolia's self-declared nuclear-weapon-free status in 1992 has been recognized by UN General Assembly resolution 55/33S on "Mongolia's international security and nuclear weapon free status." (1 member)
Treaty Status • Treaty of Tlatelolco - sig by all 33 Latin America & Caribbean states. Prot 1 rati: by France, Netherlands, US & UK .Prot II rati: by all NWS • Treaty of Rarotonga – rati by all 13 states. Prot 1: sig & rati by France & UK while the US has sig nor rati it. Prot II rati by China, France, the UK, & S.U. Prot: III rati by China, France, UK, & the SU . US has submitted protocols 2 & 3 to the Senate for ratification. • Treaty of Bangkok –rati by all 10 members. Not ratified by the NWS China has expressed willingness to ratify the protocol in the past. In Nov 2011 Asean members and the NWS reached agreement on the outstanding substantive issues related to the zone, paving the way for the NWS to sign and ratify the updated protocol once some additional procedural • arrangements have been concluded. •
Treaty of Pelindaba -(Rati: 31 Sig 52) Prot I & 2 sig & rati by China, France, the UK, & the Russian Federation. US has sig but pending rati of prot 1 & 2 by US Senate. Prot 3 sig & rati by France but Spain has neither sig nor rati prot 3
• Treaty of Semipalatinsk - Rati by all 5 Sig. Not ratified by NWS.US has declared intent to work with parties to sign the protocol
Other treaties : • Antarctic Treaty • Outer Space Treaty Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies • Moon Agreement • Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies • Seabed Treaty Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof
A total of 114 countries are party to NWFZ
22 states are not part of a NWFZ or a collective security bloc nor nuclear weapons states, 12 in the Middle East, 6 in South Asia, 4 in the former Soviet Union.
Proposed Zones: Several new NWFZ have been suggested :
• 1975-Pakistan’s proposal for the establishment of a NWFZ in South Asia. • 1974, Iran and Egypt’s proposal for the establishment of a Middle Eastern NWFZ. • proposal to declare the entire Southern Hemisphere a NWFZ. • suggestions to establish a NWFZ in Northeast Asia. 1992- North and South Korea signed a Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. • Arctic Ocean NWFZ proposed by NGOS & Academics