ART 31 Final Review
Paleolithic: “Venus” of Willendorf
Paleolithic: “Venus” of Laussel
“The Neolithic Revolution” The Shift from Paleolithic to Neolithic
Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)
Neolithic (New Stone Age)
Nomadic Hunter-Gatherers Cave Dwellings and Shrines Portable sculpture Cave Paintings
Settled in Permanent Villages Domesticated Agriculture & Animal Husbandry Megalithic Architecture “Birth of Civilization”
Neolithic: Stonehenge Salisbury Plain, England
the beginning of Post and Lintel Architecture
Characteristics of Near Eastern Art •Use of hierarchical proportion/scale to depict leaders or gods larger than everyone else •Use of cuneiform •Stylized Major themes: Rulers, Military Conquest, Gods and Religious Practices, Animals
Victory Stele of Naram-Sin Akkadian
Characteristics of Egyptian Art •Use of canon of proportions •Static and un-changing •Combined frontal and profile views •Use of hieroglyphics •Stylized •Gender color differentiation: (male/red : female/yellow) Major themes: Unification, Divine Kingship, Gods and Religious Practices, and Rebirth
Menkaure and Queen Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4
Egyptian Canon of Proportion
The Pyramids of Giza Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4 (tombs of the Pharaohs Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu)
Characteristics of Greek Art •Idealized forms •Contrapposto pose •Emphasis on balance and proportion •Marble and bronze sculpture
Major themes: Gods and Goddesses, Religious Events, Funerary Practices, Mythology
Greek Pottery Painting
Black Figure Painting
Red Figure Painting
Early Classical: Kritios Boy Marble, c.480 B.C.E.
The “s-curve” used in Classical Greek sculptures showing the body standing at rest, with one leg bearing the weight while the hips and shoulders are asymmetrical. Perfected by the Greek sculptor Polykleitus.
The Classical Orders of Architecture:
3 major parts of column: base, shaft, and capital
Classical Greek Architecture: Iktinos and Kallikrates [Architects] The Parthenon, Athens, c.447-438 B.C.E.
Post and Lintel Architecture. Doric. Dedicated to the goddess Athena. Decorated with sculpture showing battles between Greeks and barbarians, and the Panathenaic Festival
Plan of the Parthenon
Gray Block represents the location of the original Athena Parthenos statue.
Characteristics of Hellenistic Greek Sculpture •Exploration of youth and old age •Theatricality and Melodrama •Extremes of Emotion •Formal Realism
Laocoön and Sons
Materials and Techniques: Terra-cotta: an orange colored earthenware (clay) material used for pottery and sculpture. Buon or True Fresco: a technique of painting of the plaster surface of a wall or ceiling. In buon fresco the paint is applied while the plaster is still damp, so that the pigments bond with the wall.
Mosaic: the use of small pieces of glass, stone, or tile (tesserae) to create an image on a wall, floor, or ceiling.
Innovations of Roman Architecture Techniques:
Types of Structures:
coffer oculus concrete dome vault true arch
aqueduct amphitheater triumphal arch basilica rotunda forum
Roman Architecture: The Colosseum
Roman Architecture: The Pantheon
Roman Architecture: The Arch of Titus
In 313 C.E. the Roman Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, a document granting tolerance of all religions. This effectively legalized Christianity.
Characteristics of Early Christian Art and Byzantine Art •Stylized individuals •Mosaic decoration •Incorrect human proportions •The illusion of weightlessness or floating •Religious themes •Illuminated Manuscripts made of vellum (calfskin)
Major components of a basilica or early church apse: a projecting part of the building, usually a half-dome, often on the East end. Nave: the long, narrow, central area used to house the congregation.
Gothic Architecture: Created by Abbot Suger . First used in his re-design of the French Royal Monastery, St. Denis. Characteristic Elements: •Pointed Arches •Stained Glass •Rose windows •Clerestory •Lancet windows •Triforium •Piers •Flying Buttresses
Tympanum: the hemispheric section above the portals (doorways) in Romanesque or Gothic cathedrals
Characteristics of the Renaissance •Artists began to think of themselves as artists as well as craftsmen •Religious art was combined with the visual conventions of the Greek and Roman traditions •Art was interpreted according to the philosophy known as “Humanism”
Giotto The Betrayal of Christ (The Kiss of Judas) 1305-06, Arena Chapel, Padua
Masaccio (Tommaso Guidi), Holy Trinity, fresco, 1425
Donatello, David, bronze c.1430-40
Italian Artists Working During the High Renaissance •Leonardo da Vinci e.g. The Mona Lisa, The Last Supper • Michelangelo e.g. The Sistine Chapel Ceiling, The Sistine Chapel Last Judgment, David, Pieta • Raphael e.g. The School of Athens
Illusions of Depth:
linear perspective: a method of creating the illusion of 3dimensional space on a 2-dimensional surface by delineating a horizon line and multiple “orthogonal” lines. These lines recede into the supposed distance and meet at one or more points on the horizon, called “vanishing points.” foreshortening: a method of perspective used to represent a single object extending back into space at an angle to the picture plane
Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, c.1495-98
Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa , c.1503-05 Sfumato was favored by da Vinci. sfumato: a technique of applying many thin layers of paint to create a “smoky” effect.
Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509-11,Vatican, Rome
Portraits of Renaissance artists as Greek philosophers, Mathematicians, and scientists.
Michelangelo David, 1501-04 Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence
Michelangelo Last Judgment, 1534-41 Sistine Chapel, Rome
Titian (Tiziano Vecelli, 1490-1576) The Venus of Urbino, c.1538
Northern Renaissance or Netherlandish Painting •Characterized by highly symbolic religious or genre (daily life) scenes. •Major artists were Jan van Eyck, Robert Campin, Albrecht Durer
Diptych (two panels), triptych (three panels), and polyptychs (many panels): paintings on hinged panels of wood, typically altarpieces for churches.
Jan van Eyck The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait, oil on wood,1434
Characteristics of Mannerism •Bright colors •Elongated bodies •Lack of linear perspective •Complex human poses •Unusual combinations of elements
Agnolo Bronzino, Allegory of Venus (Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time), c.1546
Leading Baroque Artists •from Italy: Caravaggio, Gentileschi
•from Holland: Rembrandt, Vermeer, Rubens •from Spain: Diego Velazquez
Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577-1640) The Raising of the Cross, 1609
chiaroscuro / tenebrism: Strong, dramatic use of light and dark in contrast, to focus on an important element or to build of volume.
Vermeer, The Geographer, 1668, oil on canvas
Neoclassicism: A late 18th to early 19th Century style of art characterized by a return to the rational arts of the Classical world. Coincided with the French Revolution.
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii
Romanticism: A late 18th to early 19th Century style of art characterized by heightened emotions, dramatic scale and impact, and spiritualism. Romantic artists, like Goya, Delacroix, Gericault, preferred to depict actual historical events and allegory.
Theodore Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818
Realism: A 19th Century style of art characterized by focus on the working class and influenced by the writings of Marx and Engels. These artists, including Courbet, Millet, Daumier, and early Manet, were dedicated to depicting the world as they experienced it, without fictionalizing or romanticizing.
Gustave Courbet,The Stonebreakers, 1849
Edouard Manet Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe, 1863
Characteristics of Impressionism •An interest in color theory •Painting outdoors •Painting urban leisure scenes (dances, bars) •An interest in the effects of light and atmosphere •A quick and obvious brush stroke •The use of only primary colors and their compliments •Japonisme: the influence of Japanese art, seen especially in the work of Monet, Cassat, and Degas
Color Terms primary colors: red, blue, and yellow
their complimentary colors: green, orange, and violet value: relative lightness or darkness
Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876
Pointilism/Divisionism: a post-impressionist technique, developed by Seurat, that used contrasting points of pure color to build an image.
Fauvism: An early 20th Century style of art characterized by an emphasis on the emotive powers of pure color. An innovator and major artist of this style is Matisse.
Cubism: An early 20th Century style of art characterized by an revolutionary approach to space: the geometrical surfaces of an object are opened out in order to give a complete representation of it from all angles and perspectives. An innovator and major artist of this style is Picasso. Influences on the Development of Cubism •Cezanne’s experiments with form and perspective •African art, especially masks •The Color theory of the Fauves
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907
Surrealism: A 20th Century style of art characterized by an interest in the subconscious mind. Influenced by Sigmund Freud’s theories on psychoanalysis and dreams, these artists favored spontaneity.
Abstract Expressionism: A New York based, 20th Century, style of art that is nonfigurative and non-objective. It includes: Action Painting: characterized by an interest in the artist’s physical involvement in creation. Influenced by Picasso and Expressionism. E.g. Jackson Pollack Color Field Painting: characterized by the calm and meditative use of colors. Influenced by Matisse. E.g. Mark Rothko
A Characteristic Action Painting, by Jackson Pollock
A Characteristic Color Field Painting, by Mark Rothko
Trompe l’oeil (Illusionism): a representation that is so realistic it is meant to trick the eye.
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