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HEROES AND VILLAINS Prelude to a speech
The world’s most memorable heroes include poets, artists, politicians, actors, athletes, writers, and ordinary people who were placed in extraordinary situations. The world’s most vile villains include the scoundrels, murderers, war mongers, thieves, and tyrants who still reach out through the ages to scare us. These men and women did evil things and caused widespread suffering to further their own ends. Heroes and villains have stories to share and secrets to tell. This year, we have read, and will continue to read, various texts centered around two themes found in many of the texts: Personal Identity through History and Ordinary People as Heroes. This research project encompasses elements of both themes. You will research a famous (or infamous) figure –learn about his/her background, the time period in which he/she lived, and share what he/she has done to leave a lasting impact. Keep in mind that your purpose is to inform and the primary audience is the class.
Personal Identity through History
How do past events affect the present and potentially the future?
Ordinary People as Heroes
How do the events of our time shape who we are?
Are those who ignore history doomed to repeat it?
Can one truly separate oneself from the events of the world?
How does oppression limit progress (as individuals and as a society)?
What defines a hero? Is there a difference between a hero and a role model? How can an ordinary person be a hero? Do the actions of a hero have to impact many? Do people plan to be heroes? Is it a choice?
You will pick your person from a major period in history: the Progressive Era, the Roaring 20’s, the Great Depression, WWII, or the turbulent 60’s (or possibly the Renaissance). For tonight, choose two different eras (thus 2 different individuals) and demonstrate what you know and want (need) to know to accomplish this task.
You should find at least two encyclopedias and read articles that contain common knowledge (information that is indisputable and does not need to be cited but may be helpful for a frame of reference). The articles will give you many important leads, informing the nature of your research. You will place key words, events, dates, etc., from the articles on the KWL chart I have provided, giving yourself a graphic representation of how to proceed.
20th Century Figures
William M. “Boss” Tweed
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Elizabeth Cadt Stanton
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Machine Gun Kelly
Pretty Boy Floyd
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Further lists can be found here: http://history1900s.about.com/od /people/u/people.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time _100:_The_Most_Important_Peopl e_of_the_Century
The Renaissance: 1300-1560 •
Leonardo da Vinci
HEROES AND VILLAINS Prelude to a speech
ADV Exceeds expectations
HI PROF Clearly meets expectations
LOW PROF Meets expectations
BASIC Approaches expectations
BELOW BASIC Does not meet expectations
A strong and sophisticated controlling idea (thesis/claim); clear and relevant focus areas Accurate, relevant, and informative details; clearly connects figure’s actions to an era of history and conveys the lasting impact
Sophisticated arrangement: clear intro (grabber), body, conclusion (zinger), including transition words
Word/sentence choice and variety that is appropriate for formal research but contains elements of a narrative (i.e. the story)
Spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, sentence structure, citations
Title page, content outline, in text citations, Works Cited/Bibliography
Formal Outline Title of Paper/ Issue I. ____________________________________________________(Main Topic) A._____________________________________________________(Subtopic) 1.__________________________________________(detail) a.__________________________________(further detail) b.__________________________________ 2.______________________________________________ a.________________________________________ b.________________________________________ c.________________________________________ B.__________________________________________________________ 1._________________________________________________ 2._______________________________________________________ II. ____________________________________________________________ A._________________________________________________________ 1.______________________________________________
2.______________________________________________ a._________________________________________ b._________________________________________ 3._____________________________________________________ B.___________________________________________________________
“The Story” For example: If what FDR did was to lead the United States out of the Great Depression, someone may need to understand how the depression came to be and how millions were living at the time. If what Eisenhower did was lead the Allies in D-Day, it’s important to understand some of the events of the war that lead to D-Day.
Title/Issue I. Historical Foundation (Era information) A. B. 1. 2. a. b. II. Historical Record (Heroic/villainous impact)
Title page Shakespeare: Builder of the Renaissance
by Joe Student
Advanced English 9 Mr. Hepler Turn in Date (31 October 2014)
Grabber – a statement about the era or the impact probably works best Controlling ideas: identifies your figure, labels him or her as a hero or villain, and places the person in a historical era. Areas of Focus: articulate each focus area more specifically; however, make the preview conversational in nature as you attempt to “tell a story” as a narrative.
Intro exemplar It is said that if one ruler falls, another will rise up to take its place. During the Great Depression Era around the 1920’s, once the Chicago government fell, a new order came to the city: that of Al Capone and his brutal Mafia. Although Al Capone may be appear to be inhuman, he made his rocky start in the gangs of New York early in his childhood. He took advantage of the troubled historical era in which he existed. Finally, Al Capone did inscribe his name on the walls of history with many disturbing acts that led to worldwide recognition, and even connect to the world today.
Intro exemplar The Renaissance was a time of art, beauty, and revolution. The works of artists and poets flourished, opening a whole new world for people to explore. The Renaissance also brought the birth of new knowledge, awakening of minds, and a desire for learning. People living in this time period developed new viewpoints on philosophy, government, and religion (“The Renaissance Period or Renaissance Era was a Time of Knowledge”). William Shakespeare, world renowned poet, actor, and playwright, was responsible for a large portion of the arts during the Renaissance.
Drafting the body Outline details the areas of focus… HISTORICAL FOUNDATION – the story of his/her time period and its effect on him/her, setting up... HISTORICAL RECORD –what he/she did to forever impact society then (and now) *BIO SKETCH –relevant details of his/her life aren’t the controlling focus but can be worked into “the story” as you see fit
Drafting the Body At this level of writing, focus areas are usually one paragraph each, but as you become a better writer, your focus areas will grow from one paragraph to several, eventually leading to pages worth of information focusing on a single area. Whether your body is three, four, or seven paragraphs, ensure the focus of all sentences supports the topic sentence (main idea) for your paragraph and keep focus and relevancy to the task. -More than likely chronological “flow” -Consider tone (formal but narrative like) -Provide evidence of research -Give credit to your sources
Writing your Paper: What do you need to Cite?
All Statistics (somebody else counted it) All Direct Quotes Any information that is controversial or questionable. Opinions from scholars and other individuals you consulted. Any information that is NOT common knowledge
This does appear vague… think “would a middle school student know this?”, it appeared in every source I accessed, or it’d be found in the first few lines of an encyclopedia. *but always err on the side of caution (it’s better to over-cite than under-cite)
How to cite…Signal Phrases Ex.
Christine Haughney reports that shortly after Japan made it illegal to use a handheld phone while driving, "accidents caused by using the phones dropped by 75 percent" (8). The signal phrase — Christine Haughney reports that — names the author; then the parenthetical citation gives the page number where the quoted words may be found. It is also very common to include the title of the material as well, especially when no author is present. Notice that the period follows the parenthetical citation. When a quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation point, leave the end punctuation inside the quotation mark and add a period after the parentheses: " . . . ?" (8).
How to cite…Parenthetical Citation If no signal phrase is used, put the author's last name in parentheses along with the page number. If there is no author for the source, use the complete or short form of the title in parentheses. Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
*NOTE: If a source has no author and is sponsored by a corporate entity, such as an organization or a government agency, name the corporate entity as the author (The American Medical Association).
Transition sentence from focus areas to the conclusion. Oftentimes a restatement of the controlling idea will do. As you review areas of focus, acknowledge the era, but focus on the enduring impressions your historical figure made on the world. What’s your answer to “why does the name of… live on today?” Zinger- Make a connection between your figure and his/her actions to today’s world. Remember, the best zingers connect to the paper’s grabber.
Conclusion exemplar This villain, Alphonse Capone, has burned a frightening image into the minds of American citizens across the country. It is one of distraught and sorrow. Of blood splattered across a concrete wall while silver shining metal rounds clatter to a cold floor, their clink muffled by the thud of bullets hitting flesh. The image is of a city hurled into anarchy by the fleshy grip of poverty, and then helped back to its feet by the cold hand of the Italian Mafia. The fall of the Chicago government and rise of the mob not only reminds us of the sorrow that the country faced during the Great Depression, but it warns us of the danger that follows the fall of the government. People may not be naturally evil, but of the strong figures of society who can take power in the event of a fail of the government, they have no good intentions. We must learn from this lesson that Chicago taught us, just like every mistake in history. We must not forget the dark times our country faced during the Great Depression, instead we must ensure that this never will occur again.
Conclusion exemplar Shakespeare’s words have lived through the ages and still touch us, nearly 500 years later. In libraries, records, and documents, he lives his life still, even though his flesh and bone have long been washed away by time. Generations long after will continue to read and perform his incredible plays, fantastic poems, and heartwarming sonnets. In today’s world, famous actors worldwide have created critically acclaimed feature films out of a few of Shakespeare’s plays. With the flourish of art and culture brought by the Renaissance, Shakespeare’s work was able to stand in the spotlight, and will continue to astonish audiences for years to come.
Bibliography vs. Works Cited
A bibliography is a collection of ALL the sources that were reviewed during the researching process. A works cited is a collection of ONLY the sources that were cited in the paper/essay.
DRAFT WORKSHOP -ARMS A –add (missing task items) Do I have the content to share the story? Do I have a parenthetical (signal phrase) each time I have a “Must Cite” piece of info?
R –remove (unnecessary detail, repetitiveness, etc.) Are all bio sketch details relevant? Is historical era info both general and specific at the same time? Do I stray from the essential story?
M –move (to create logical flow) Does the chosen flow of the story make sense to another reader? Is it chronological? Are my “sophisticated” transitions at paragraph beginning?
S –substitute (overused/inappropriate words… for style and/or clarity) Replace weak/linking verbs for strong/action verbs. No “In conclusion” clichés. No first/second person pronoun. Do I keep a formal sensibility without being “stuffy”?
Draft Workshop -Citations
Make sure EVERY in-text citation matches an entry on the Works Cited page and vice versa. Use only author’s last name and page number (if there is one) or that titles are correctly identified as books (books) or “articles”. Make sure the first line of an entry is to the margin and subsequent (2nd or 3rd) lines of an entry are indented, and always alphabetize the entries with the first letter appearing at the start of the entry. Continue to alphabetize according to subsequent letters and/or numbers. You may run into similar authors/titles, which have rules. This is where Noodletools should do the work.
Turn in reminders
Make sure the work policy for font and spacing (12 point, Times New Roman, double spaced) match class requirements. However, no class heading/title is needed on the essay’s first page. Instead, make sure each page of the paper has the author’s last name and page number (like this: Hepler 4) in the upper right hand corner. Start the numbering after the content outline and continue through the Works Cited and Bibliography. Staple the contents of the paper in this order: title page, content outline, paper, Works, Bibliography, KWL, and ARMS activity, rubric.