January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Architecture
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History Alive Chapter 9 Muslim Innovations and Adaptations

9.3 City Building and Architecture • Development of new cities developed Muslim lands • New architecture • Jobs

City of Baghdad • Caliph al-Mansur moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad • Closer to his empire • Today, Baghdad located between Tigris & Euphrates River • Crossroads of trade roots connecting the empire

City of Baghdad • Glorious Muslim cities • 4 years to build new capital • 100,000 architects, workers and craftspeople • Called “the round city”

The Mosque • Muslim house of worship • Inside is a prayer room • Worshippers sit on carpets on the floor • Imam gives the sermon from a raised pulpit called the minibar • Niche in the wall to show direction of prayer toward Makkah

9.4 Scholarship & Learning • Highly valued • Arabic was accepted language of Islam • Shared language and love of learning allowed scholars (students) in Europe, North Africa & the Middle East to exchange ideas

Scholarship & Learning: House of Wisdom • Baghdad became a major center of learning • Caliph al-Ma’mun founded the House of Wisdom (830) • Scholars from many lands gather there to do research • Translated texts from Greece, Persia, India & China

Scholarship & Learning: Great Centers of Learning

• Fatimid dynasty built the Cairo capital in Egypt (similar to Baghdad) – Most advanced university in the Muslim world – Hall of Wisdom – scholars and ordinary people can visit their library to read

• Muslim capital, Cordoba in Spain became a large and wealthy city – Jews, Christian, & Muslims studied there

Scholarship & Learning Philosopher – scholar, teacher or thinker who seeks knowledge • Muslims studied books & ancient Greek thinkers, such as the philosophers: – Plato – Aristotle

• Muslim philosophers used reason & logic (common sense) to try to prove important truths

Scholarship & Learning: Al-Kindi • Al-Kindi – a 9th century Arab philosopher • Said “Humans had two sources of knowledge: reason & revelation by God” • Use reason to understand faith • Some truths are knows only through God’s word – need to be belief in things that cannot be proven

Scholarship & Learning: Ibn Sina • Ibn Sina – Persian who is Islam’s most famous philosopher – Known as Avicenna in Europe – Believed all knowledge came from God – Truth can be known through revelation & reason

• Believed soul was immortal (able to live forever) • Translated & influenced many medieval European thinkers

9.5 Science & Technology • Qur’an instructed Muslims to learn more about the world God made • Muslims advanced in science & technology

Science & Technology: Zoology Evolution – slow process of change in plants and animals from simpler forms to more complex forms Zoology – scientific study of animals • Books written on structure of animals’ bodies • Studied how to make medicines from animals’ parts • al-Jahiz presented theories about the evolution of animals • Created zoos

Science & Technology: Astronomy Astronomy – study of objects in the universe Muslims wanted to learn about the universe • Navigational tools created to locate the direction of Makkah • Worshippers far from the holy city can pray facing the right direction • Found accurate times for prayer and the length of the month of Ramadan • Realized Earth rotates rather than the Earth being the center of the universe

Science & Technology: Irrigation & Underground Wells • • • •

Water was scarce & land was hot and dry Build dams & aqueducts Improved canals & underground wells Used water wheels to bring water up from canals & reservoirs

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