January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Cold War And Beyond (After 1945), Cold War
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FDR and the Shadow of War

London Economic Conference  66 nations meet. Purpose and primary goal  Roosevelt pulls out. Why?  Results:  World depression gets worse and everyone pursues their

own policies.  Leads to an increase in nationalism.  Reduces chances for international cooperation on other issues

FDR’s Foreign Policy  Increased isolationism  Withdrew from Asia  Tydings-McDuffie Act – independence of the

Philippines  1933 – recognized the Soviet Union

“Good Neighbor Policy”  Renounced armed intervention in Latin America.  Marines left Haiti in 1934;  Cuba, under the Platt Amendment, was released from

American control  Mexican government seized American oil properties in 1938,  FDR held to his unarmed intervention policy and a

settlement was worked out in 1941

Dictators: Joseph Stalin  1922: Control of Communist USSR

Dictators: Benito Mussolini  1922: Italy

Dictators: Adolf Hitler  Nazi Party (Germany) – 1921  Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)

Isolationism: Dr. Seuss

Neutrality Acts  1935, 1936, 1937  No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship,

sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent.  Provoked agression


Japan invades China  In 1937, the Japanese militarists touched off an

explosion that led to the all-out invasion of China.  President Roosevelt refused to call the "China incident"

an officially declared war.  The Japanese, as a result, were able to continue to buy war supplies in the United States.

 In 1937, Japanese planes sunk an American gunboat,

the Panay.  Tokyo was quick to make apologies and the United

States accepted.


Hitler’s violation of the Treaty of Versailles  1935 - mandatory military service in Germany. I  1936 - took over the demilitarized German Rhineland.

 In March 1938, Hitler invaded Austria.  (Note: Austria actually voted for the occupation, fully aware that if it resisted, Germany would forcefully take over Austria.)  At a conference in Munich, Germany in September

1938, the Western European democracies, unprepared for war, gave away Sudetenland to Germany.  In March 1939, Hitler took control of Czechoslovakia.

WWII in Europe Begins  Hitler-Stalin Pact (1939)  Pact of Steel (1939)  Italy and Germany  Hitler invades Poland on Sept 1, 1939.  Blitzkrieg – “Lightning War”  Britain and France declare war on Germany  Neutrality Act of 1939.  European scould buy American war materials as long as they would transport the munitions on their own ships.

Other territorial gains  Soviet Union took Finland  Germany took Denmark and Norway (1940)  Germany took Netherlands and Belgium

Fall of France  May 10th , 1940  The battle consisted of two main operations.  Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armored units pushed through the Ardennes to cut off and surround the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium.  Fall Rot Case Red), executed from June 5th, German forces attacked the larger territory of France across the Maginot line.  Italy declared war on France on June 10th.

 The French government fled to Bordeaux and Paris was

occupied on June 14th.  France surrendered on June 25th.

German occupation

U.S. Reaction  Roosevelt moved with tremendous speed to call upon

the nation to build huge air fleets and a two-ocean navy.  Congress approved spending of $37 billion.  On September 6, 1940, Congress passed a conscription law;  First peacetime draft was initiated  provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and

800,000 reserves each year.

 At the Havana Conference of 1940,  responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine.

Germany v. Britain  August 1940 - The Battle of Britain  Air battle  radio broadcasts brought the drama from London air raids directly to America homes.  On September 2, 1940, President Roosevelt agreed to

transfer to 50 destroyers left over from WWI to Britain.  Violated neutrality agreements

 In return, Britain agreed to hand over to the United

States 8 valuable defensive base sites.

Battle of Britain

Election of 1940  Republican – Wendell Willkie  Dictatorship of FDR  Inefficiency of the New Deal  Democrat – FDR  experience  Both  Stay out of war  Strengthen defenses  Voters felt FDR more prepared for war

Lend-Lease Bill  Passed fearing the collapse of Britain  American arms could be leased to democracies who

needed them.  Abandoned neutrality  Hitler – “unofficial declaration of war”

 Robin Moor – merchant ship destroyed by German


Germany v. Soviet Union  June 22, 1941, Hitler attacks the Soviet Union.  Roosevelt made military supplies available.  Atlantic Conference: August 1941.  Roosevelt and Churchill  8 points 

no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government declared for disarmament and a peace of security,

Atlantic Conference

Repeal of Neutrality Act  U.S. escorts the shipments of arms to Britain by U.S.

warships in July 1941.  In September 1941, the U.S. destroyer Greer was attacked by U-boat  Roosevelt a then proclaimed a shoot-on-sight policy.

 Congress voted in November 1941 to repeal the

Neutrality Act of 1939, enabling merchant ships to be legally armed and enter the combat zones with munitions for Britain.

U.S.S Greer

“A Day That Will Live in Infamy.”  Japan had been allied with Germany.  Washington imposed the first of its embargoes on

Japan-bound supplies in 1940.  Asked Japan to move out of China

 On "Black Sunday" December 7, 1941, Japanese

bombers attacked Pearl Harbor, killing 2,348 people.  On December 11, 1941, Congress declared war.

Kamikaze Pilots

Declaration of War

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