FDR and the Shadow of War
London Economic Conference 66 nations meet. Purpose and primary goal Roosevelt pulls out. Why? Results: World depression gets worse and everyone pursues their
own policies. Leads to an increase in nationalism. Reduces chances for international cooperation on other issues
FDR’s Foreign Policy Increased isolationism Withdrew from Asia Tydings-McDuffie Act – independence of the
Philippines 1933 – recognized the Soviet Union
“Good Neighbor Policy” Renounced armed intervention in Latin America. Marines left Haiti in 1934; Cuba, under the Platt Amendment, was released from
American control Mexican government seized American oil properties in 1938, FDR held to his unarmed intervention policy and a
settlement was worked out in 1941
Dictators: Joseph Stalin 1922: Control of Communist USSR
Dictators: Benito Mussolini 1922: Italy
Dictators: Adolf Hitler Nazi Party (Germany) – 1921 Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)
Isolationism: Dr. Seuss
Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936, 1937 No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship,
sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent. Provoked agression
Japan invades China In 1937, the Japanese militarists touched off an
explosion that led to the all-out invasion of China. President Roosevelt refused to call the "China incident"
an officially declared war. The Japanese, as a result, were able to continue to buy war supplies in the United States.
In 1937, Japanese planes sunk an American gunboat,
the Panay. Tokyo was quick to make apologies and the United
Hitler’s violation of the Treaty of Versailles 1935 - mandatory military service in Germany. I 1936 - took over the demilitarized German Rhineland.
In March 1938, Hitler invaded Austria. (Note: Austria actually voted for the occupation, fully aware that if it resisted, Germany would forcefully take over Austria.) At a conference in Munich, Germany in September
1938, the Western European democracies, unprepared for war, gave away Sudetenland to Germany. In March 1939, Hitler took control of Czechoslovakia.
WWII in Europe Begins Hitler-Stalin Pact (1939) Pact of Steel (1939) Italy and Germany Hitler invades Poland on Sept 1, 1939. Blitzkrieg – “Lightning War” Britain and France declare war on Germany Neutrality Act of 1939. European scould buy American war materials as long as they would transport the munitions on their own ships.
Other territorial gains Soviet Union took Finland Germany took Denmark and Norway (1940) Germany took Netherlands and Belgium
Fall of France May 10th , 1940 The battle consisted of two main operations. Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armored units pushed through the Ardennes to cut off and surround the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium. Fall Rot Case Red), executed from June 5th, German forces attacked the larger territory of France across the Maginot line. Italy declared war on France on June 10th.
The French government fled to Bordeaux and Paris was
occupied on June 14th. France surrendered on June 25th.
U.S. Reaction Roosevelt moved with tremendous speed to call upon
the nation to build huge air fleets and a two-ocean navy. Congress approved spending of $37 billion. On September 6, 1940, Congress passed a conscription law; First peacetime draft was initiated provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and
800,000 reserves each year.
At the Havana Conference of 1940, responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine.
Germany v. Britain August 1940 - The Battle of Britain Air battle radio broadcasts brought the drama from London air raids directly to America homes. On September 2, 1940, President Roosevelt agreed to
transfer to 50 destroyers left over from WWI to Britain. Violated neutrality agreements
In return, Britain agreed to hand over to the United
States 8 valuable defensive base sites.
Battle of Britain
Election of 1940 Republican – Wendell Willkie Dictatorship of FDR Inefficiency of the New Deal Democrat – FDR experience Both Stay out of war Strengthen defenses Voters felt FDR more prepared for war
Lend-Lease Bill Passed fearing the collapse of Britain American arms could be leased to democracies who
needed them. Abandoned neutrality Hitler – “unofficial declaration of war”
Robin Moor – merchant ship destroyed by German
Germany v. Soviet Union June 22, 1941, Hitler attacks the Soviet Union. Roosevelt made military supplies available. Atlantic Conference: August 1941. Roosevelt and Churchill 8 points
no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government declared for disarmament and a peace of security,
Repeal of Neutrality Act U.S. escorts the shipments of arms to Britain by U.S.
warships in July 1941. In September 1941, the U.S. destroyer Greer was attacked by U-boat Roosevelt a then proclaimed a shoot-on-sight policy.
Congress voted in November 1941 to repeal the
Neutrality Act of 1939, enabling merchant ships to be legally armed and enter the combat zones with munitions for Britain.
“A Day That Will Live in Infamy.” Japan had been allied with Germany. Washington imposed the first of its embargoes on
Japan-bound supplies in 1940. Asked Japan to move out of China
On "Black Sunday" December 7, 1941, Japanese
bombers attacked Pearl Harbor, killing 2,348 people. On December 11, 1941, Congress declared war.
Declaration of War