PPT - OGT Terms 11-21
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OGT TERMS (11-21) Glossary of Terms for the OGT Graduation Test
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Movement by African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., against segregation, discrimination, and inequality. (72)
In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed racial discrimination in public places, such as theaters, cafeterias and hotels. This was an attempt to A. maintain poll taxes for African-Americans. B. stop African-American northward migration. C. end segregation legalized by Jim Crow laws. D. segregate public busing in major American cities.
2008 Test What is one direct consequence of the U.S. civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s? A. the right to freedom of religion for all citizens B. the end of legal segregation in public places C. the granting of citizenship to African-Americans D. the passing of legislation to protect the accused
Which change in U.S. society in the 20th century was an outgrowth of the success of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s? A. the passage of laws to protect the natural environment B. the increase in funding for elementary and secondary education C. the expansion of the role of state governments in economic affairs D. the creation of new groups to advocate for the rights of other minorities
CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER TEST A Supreme Court test stating that free speech must be limited if it creates a danger that is clear, probable, and immediate. (147)
In the United States, a citizen’s exercise of speech and expression may be legally restricted when that individual A. threatens public safety. B. opposes public opinion. C. criticizes public officials. D. condemns public institutions.
COLD WAR (1945-1990) The conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States that began after World War II. It was called the “Cold War” because the two superpowers never directly confronted one another in open war fare. (51)
COLD WAR TEST QUESTION
In the years following World War II, the countries of communist Eastern Europe were often referred to as being “behind the iron curtain.” These countries were perceived as a single region based on A. a common cultural heritage. B. unique physical features. C. economic and political characteristics. D. widespread immigration from other regions.
2008 Test The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was partly the result of the expansion of the Soviet Union in Central and Eastern Europe as World War II ended. • Describe one U.S. concern about the Soviet Union’s domination of Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. • Cite a relevant action taken by the United States in response to the identified concern.
Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4points)
During World War II, Japanese troops occupied much of China. This weakened the Chinese government, and in 1949, communist forces overthrew the government and established a communist state. What effect did the Chinese Communist Revolution have on the development of the Cold War? A. It decreased tensions, because it led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact. B. It increased tensions, because it strengthened the independence movement in India. C. It increased tensions, because it increased Western fears of communist expansion. D. It decreased tensions, because it led to the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union.
COMMAND ECONOMY An economic system in which important economic decisions are made by the government. (113)
2008 Test In a command economy, the question of what goods to produce is primarily determined by A. cultural traditions. B. decisions by individuals. C C. government plans. D. corporate policies.
COMMUNISM A system based on eliminating private property to end class struggles and create an ideal society. In practice, Communism has been characterized by government control of all aspects of life. (114)
CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR A person who opposes fighting in a war on moral or religious grounds. (148)
4 POINT TEST QUESTION During World War I, conscientious objectors to military
service were often accused of disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were sentenced to prison. However, an attempt was made to balance individual rights and the common good by assigning other conscientious objectors to noncombatant service.
• How did assigning conscientious objectors to noncombatant service help maintain individual rights?
• How did assigning conscientious objectors to noncombatant service help serve the common good?
Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)
2008 Test During World War I, conscientious objectors to military service were often accused of disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were sentenced to prison. However, other conscientious objectors were willing to accept noncombatant service. The assignment of conscientious objectors to noncombatant service was an attempt by the government to A. promote ethnic diversity within the military. B. educate people about their constitutional rights. C. balance individual rights and the common good. D. encourage people to apply for conscientious objector status.
COUNTER-CULTURE OF THE 1960S Young people who challenged the traditional values of mainstream America. (74)
The burning of draft cards by those who objected to the Vietnam War is an example of civil disobedience because it was an action that A. was protected by the U.S. Constitution. B. was intended to draw the attention of the media. C. violated a law that the protesters considered to be unjust. D. expressed a point of view that was unpopular at the time.
CREDIBLE SOURCE A source that is believable and trustworthy.(154156)
When considering the reliability of a report that promotes hybrid gaselectric cars as environmentally friendly, what should be carefully considered? A. the length of the report B. the cost of producing the report C. the number of claims in the report D. the accurate use of facts in the report
Which source has the appropriate qualifications to be a credible source of information about how a proposed tax cut would affect the U.S. national debt? A. a letter to the editor of the New York Times from an astrophysicist B. a film producer of a documentary about the New Deal era C. a recent report published by the Congressional Budget Office D. a television advertisement sponsored by a veterans’ group
2009 Test The authors of many history books provide bibliographies that indicate the sources for information provided in the text. Why would providing the reader with this information make a book more credible? A. It allows the reader to check the reputation of the writer. B. It allows the reader to find other books on the same topic. C. It allows the reader to form his or her own opinions on the topic. D. It allows the reader to determine the thoroughness of the author’s research.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (1962) U.S.-Soviet confrontation over missiles in Cuba that brought the world to the brink of nuclear war.(55)
Cuban Missile Crisis
CULTURAL DIFFUSION The exchange of ideas and products between cultures. (88)
Some Internet search engines offer the ability to automatically translate Web pages that are written in languages other than English. One effect of this feature is to A. reduce the desire for international trade. B. reduce the need for modern computer technology. C. increase the need for instruction in foreign languages. D. increase opportunities for exchanges of cultural practices.
2009 Test By the second half of the 20th century, improvements in airplane technology had resulted in air travel becoming affordable for a large part of the population. Explain how the development of affordable air travel contributed to the exchange of cultural practices among people all over the world. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)
CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE The particular point of view a person or group has based on their cultural background. (80)
In the 19th century, European countries claimed that the conquest of Africa would bring the benefits of Western civilization to that continent. From the perspective of African peoples, the effect was A. loss of political independence. B. fewer agricultural products for foreign trade. C. new national boundaries based on ethnic and cultural similarities. D. global appreciation for African cultures and encouragement of their development.