PPT - OGT Terms 22-31

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, Government
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OGT TERMS A glossary of terms for the OGT 22-31

DEATH RATE The number of people that die in one year out of every 1,000 people. (97)

DEMOCRACY A system in which citizens participate in government decisions by voting directly on issues or by electing people to represent them in the legislature. (134)

In a democracy, the source of authority for the government is the A. head of state. B. legislature. C. courts. D. people.


DICTATORSHIP A system in which citizens have few rights and the government is controlled by an individual or small group. Nazi Germany was an example of a dictatorship.(133)


The primary feature of a dictatorship is that A. people are permitted to vote for more than one candidate. B. the executive branch has equal power with the legislative branch. C. judicial courts are replaced by military courts. D. leaders make decisions without the consent of the people.

2008 Test Question Some countries that are dictatorships hold elections from time to time. These elections are different from elections in presidential democracies because typically elections in dictatorships A. only allow citizens to vote and to run for elected office. B. are monitored by international observers to ensure fairness. C. only have candidates from one political party on the ballot. D. are held more often than elections in presidential democracies.


DUST BOWL A series of droughts that affected the American Midwest in the 1930s, drying up crops and turning the soil to dust. (68)

ENLIGHTENMENT A movement of thought in 18thcentury Europe and America. Enlightenment thinkers believed government decisions and social arrangements should be based on the laws of nature and reason. (23)

Enlightenment Test Question Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and JeanJacques Rousseau challenged the idea of the divine right of kings. They wrote about a government’s obligations to uphold people’s rights and how the government should be based on the consent of the governed. These new ideas encouraged people to A. remain firm in their support of absolute monarchs. B. look for leaders who would exercise dictatorial powers. C. engage in revolutions to establish democratic governments. D. call for church leaders to create theocracies and replace the monarchies.


2008 Question What action by the leaders of the French Revolution demonstrates that they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas? A. They called for the fall of the absolute monarchy. B. They encouraged the conquests of Napoleon. C. They fought to maintain France’s colonial empire. D. They supported the combination of church and state.


In exploring the relationship between governments and people, Thomas Hobbes argued that governments resulted from a social contract to maintain an orderly society. John Locke, another philosopher of the Enlightenment, inspired American revolutionaries by arguing that a new social contract could be instituted under what circumstance? A. if a government failed to compel obedience B. if a government violated people’s natural rights C. if a government failed to protect people from economic inequality D. if a government entered into alliances with foreign governments


2009 Question Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote that the relationship between citizens and their government was a social contract. Which statement describes the impact of the idea of government as a social contract on the French Revolution in 1789? A. The king granted women the right to vote. B. French citizens claimed their natural rights. C. The king raised taxes to pay off the public debt. D. French citizens supported the king against the nobles.


What was one idea that the leaders of the American Revolution shared with Enlightenment thinkers? A. Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for mother countries. B. The people have the right to overthrow their government if it abuses its powers. C. Governments may restrict freedom of speech and of the press during times of crisis. D. Factories and businesses should be owned by the government rather than by individuals. B

“EQUAL PROTECTION” The guarantee in the U.S. Constitution that each person is entitled to the “equal protection of the laws.” (127) 14th Amendment

What perspective of AfricanAmericans was reflected in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909? A. the desire for a return to their cultural heritage B. the need to improve working conditions in factories C. the desire to end legalized discrimination based on race D. the belief in the importance of building a new country in Africa


FASCISM European political movement that emerged after World War I. Fascists believe the state is supreme; that an absolute leader expressed the needs of the state: and that citizens should make sacrifices for the state. Mussolini lead a military-fascist state in Italy.

FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM A system established in 1913, in which a government agency oversees the nation’s money supply. Federal Reserve Banks lend money to other banks, and also Ben Bernanke decide on bank reserve requirements. Chairman Federal Reserve Board (120)

Federal Reserve Banks

Federal Reserve Writing Questions 

What would be the expected effect on spending by the public if the U.S. government lowered personal income tax rates? Explain your answer. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

Reserve System seeks to influence the U.S. economy is by raising or lowering One way the Federal the rate of interest (discount rate) that member banks must pay to borrow money from the Federal Reserve. • Considering that the inflation rate rose significantly from 1976 to 1980, identify the change (increase or decrease) the Federal Reserve System could have made in the discount rate to reverse that trend. • Describe the expected impact this change in the discount rate would have had on: 􀁽 consumer spending 􀁽 business spending • Explain why this change in the discount rate would produce the desired effects on spending.

Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)

Federal Reserve Question A newspaper headline states: “Federal Reserve Decides to Reduce the Money Supply; Slowing of the Economy Likely Impact.” According to the headline, the Federal Reserve A. wants banks to reduce lending. B. thinks the unemployment rate is too high. C. wants banks to give more customers loans. D. hopes that consumers will decide to spend more


2009 Question What was a key reason for the creation of the Federal Reserve System? A. to encourage exports B. to increase tax revenues C. to reduce budget deficits D. to promote economic stability D

FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT An amendment passed after the Civil War guaranteeing that the right to vote could not be denied to any citizen on the basis of race, religion or national origin.(127)

FISCAL POLICY A means of stimulating the economy through government spending and taxation policies. (119)


U.S. government enforcement of environmental regulations helps reduce health problems related to environmental pollution. How does this help promote economic growth and stability? A. It decreases the size of the available workforce. B. It creates new productive resources. C. It reduces the cost of raw materials for manufacturers. D. It lowers health care costs for individuals and businesses.

2008 Question In order to stimulate the economy, the United States government lowers personal income tax rates. Why would this action be expected to promote economic growth? A. Businesses would be required to hire more employees. B. Manufacturers would have to pay more for raw materials. C. The government would be less likely to engage in deficit spending. D. Consumers would have more money available to spend on goods and services.


2009 Question Identify one action that may be taken by the federal government that could improve the ability of businesses to raise wages, buy new equipment, and conduct product research. A. support monopolies B. reduce government spending C. reduce corporate income taxes D. set price ceilings on goods and services


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