(present perfect tense).
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Module 2 Unit 1
• Structures connected with the present perfect tense: 1) It is (has been) +a period of time +since-clause. 2)This (That/It) is the first (second…) time + that-clause (present perfect tense). 3)This (That/It) is the best/ finest /most interesting … + that-clause. (present perfect tense).
the Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Form: have / has + been +doing
_________________________________________ past perfect past now future present perfect continuous _________________________________________ past perfect past now future
The boy started having dinner five minutes ago. He is still having dinner now. The boy ________________ has been having (have) dinner since five minutes ago.
The man started working in the field half an hour ago. He is still working now.
has been working (work) in The man __________________ the field for half an hour.
Summary 1: 1.We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that started in the past and are still continuing. I have not been sleeping well since I returned home. I returned home. I’m still not sleeping well. not being able to sleep well
Summary 2: We also use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that have just finished but are still connected to the present in some way. ---Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long? ---Yes. I’ve been waiting for an hour.
Please read Notes1-4 on Page 10 carefully.
Present perfect or present perfect continuous tense?
Li Jia has been reading a book about Stonehenge.
She is still reading the book.
Li Jia has read a book about Stonehenge.
She finished reading the book. She knows the content of the book now.
Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about an action completed in the recent past, and the present prefect continuous tense for an action that started in the past and is still happening.
She __________ has visited (visit) Japan twice this month.
He _______________ has been touring (tour) America for two months.
Note: The present perfect continuous tense can’t be used with time expressions such as twice or how many times, because in this tense the action is continuous, not stopped and started again. We can use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, and the present perfect continuous tense for non-stop actions.
How long ______________________ have you been swimming (swim) in the lake? How many times _______________ have you swum (swim) in the lake?
Note: We usually use the present perfect tense to ask questions
beginning with how many/much, and the present perfect continuous tense to ask questions beginning with how long.
A state verb or an action verb? 1)She has had the pen for 2 years.
2)She has written many compositions with this pen.
action verb 3)She has been writing compositions with this pen.
An action means something happening or changing. A state means something
staying the same. Some examples of action verbs are do, go, and play. Some examples of state verbs are like, know and exist.
Note: We can use either a state verb or an action with the present perfect tense, but we usually can only use an action verb with the present perfect continuous tense. A state verb doesn’t mean an action, so it can’t be used in a continuous tense.
• They’ve always had a big garden.
• How long have you known each other? • He’s been in hospital since his
I’ve never visited Tibet. I’ve already been to Tibet.
Note: We use the present perfect tense, not the present perfect continuous tense, with the words like always, never, yet, already and ever.
How long have you been
How long have you
It has rained for It has been raining a long time. for a long time.
Note: An action which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just finished can, with certain verbs, be expressed by either the present perfect or present perfect continuous. Verbs which can be used in this way include expect, hope, learn, lie, live, sleep, sit, study, wait, want, snow, etc.
Multiple choice ( ) 1. Although he has lived with us for years, he _________ us much impression. A. hadn’t left
B. didn’t leave
C. doesn’t leave D. hasn’t left
( ) 2. How can you possibly miss the news? It ___________ on TV all day long. A. has been
B. had been
D. will be
( ) 3.---- _____ Dad and Vicky _____ married? A. How long were, being B. How long, have
C. How long have, been D. How long did, get
( ) 4. ---- How long ______ at the job? ---- Since 1990. A. were you employed
B. have you been employed C. had you been employed D. will you been employed
( ) 5. I wonder why Jenny ____ us recently. We should have heard from her by now.
A.hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write
D. hadn’t written
1.Review the Grammar we have learned in Unit 1. 2.Finish A and B on P11; C1 and C2 on P88. 3.Preview Task.