Present tenses Future tenses Comparisons

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Writing, Grammar
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April 15th 2013

Present tenses Future tenses Comparisons Vocabulary: Birth - Childhood and adolescence – Death Entertainment (films, leisure time)

Nouns made from Adjectives

BELONGINGS

PERMANENT SITUATIONS MRS AND MR TRENT LIVE IN OXFORD

THIS VILLA BELONGS TO A VERY RICH FAMILY

FIXED TIMES

SCIENTIFIC FACTS THE SUN RISES IN THE EAST

WHAT TIME DOES THE MUSEUM OPEN?

PRESENT SIMPLE HABITS WE USUALLY WALK TO WORK

OPINIONS I DON’T AGREE WITH YOU BUT I’LL DO IT ANYWAY

SENSES THIS CAKE SMELLS GOOD AND IT TASTES GOOD TOO! KNOWLEDGE SHE DOESN’T KNOW THE NEW CEO OF OUR COMPANY

PRESENT CONTINUOUS ACTION IN PROGRESS IS JANE TALKING ON THE PHONE? UNFINISHED ACTIONS WE ARE LEARNING TO USE NEW SOFTWARE AT THE MOMENT ANNOYING OR SURPRISING HABITS WITH ALWAYS MY NEIGHBOUR IS ALWAYS USING THE DISHWASHER AT NIGHT TEMPORARY ACTIONS/ SITUATIONS I’M COVERING FOR A COLLEAGUE AT WORK THIS MONTH PLANS AND ARRANGEMENTS IN THE FUTURE I’M MEETING MY FRIENDS OUTSIDE THE THEATRE TONIGHT

Future tenses • A Predictions: will/going to 1. She will probably get an Oscar for her excellent performance (-> I believe this) 2. She is going to get an Oscar – the reviews are fantastic (-> I’m sure: I have information now – predictions from evidence) • B Plans; arrangements; fixed events/timetables 1. We’re going to see that new movie tonight. (Plans and intentions) 2. We’re meeting our friends outside the cinema. (Definite future arrangements) 3. The film starts at eight o’clock. (Scheduled event) • C Decisions 1. There’s a new film on. I’ll phone for tickets. (-> I decided this minute) 2. I’m going to phone for tickets later today. (-> I decided earlier) • D Offers, requests, promises, threats: will 1. I’ll get the tickets, shall I? 2. Don’t worry! I won’t be late.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS WILL BE + ING • ACTIONS IN PROGRESS AT A FUTURE TIME: I’ll be lying on a beach this time tomorrow. • PLANNED FUTURE ACTIONS: Will you be going to the meeting tomorrow? (polite) • ACTIONS WHICH ARE ROUTINE: Will you be spending your holidays at the seaside as usual this year?

FUTURE PERFECT WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE • ACTION COMPLETED BEFORE A POINT IN THE FUTURE: We will have finished this book by the summer. • We use the FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (Will have been + ing) TO FOCUS ON THE DURATION OF AN ACTION: By the time I take my exam, I will have been learning English for six years.

Comparatives and superlatives • 1 SYLLABLE/2 SYLLABLE IN Y: 1.The countryside is (a lot/ much) greener than the town. 2.I think New York is (by far) the liveliest city in the world.

• 2/3 SYLLABLES ADJECTIVES, MOST ADVERBS: 3.The country is (far/a great deal) less polluted than the city. 4.This is the most/the least exciting city I have ever visited.

• IRREGULAR adj./adverbs Good/well Bad/badly Little Much/many

better worse less more

(the) best (the) worst (the) least (the) most

Far Late

farther/further later

(the) farthest/furthest (the) last

• COMPARING SIMILAR THINGS 1.(NOT) AS… AS: City life is/is not (nearly) as relaxing as life in the country.

LIKE OR AS? 2.Like all cities, New York is very noisy. (comparison) 3. As a teenager, I find city life really exciting. (function/ position) • ADDING EMPHASIS: far, much, a lot, …

• REPEATING COMPARATIVES 1.Cities are getting bigger and bigger. 2.The bigger cities get, the noisier they become. • TOO, ENOUGH 1.Do we have enough money to go to the cinema? 2. I’m not old enough to buy my own flat. 3.The city is getting too dangerous.

Listening (part 1 & 2) • To shout at • Plenty of • To draw attention

• To show off • To tell off • To be allowed (in/ to do sth/

• I had a bit of an odd week

• • • • • •

Recipe To turn out (all right) To put on I used to have classes To make it Up-to-date

sth/ )

• • • •

To split up To stick together Handler To pick up (the ball; it’s an easy game to pick up)

• To lie down across

Past SIMPLE • FINISHED ACTION IN THE PAST: When did you finished your homework? They didn’t go to college when they lived in the States. We spent a month in Australia last year.

• STORY TELLING: Once upon a time there was a young girl who lived in a huge castle…

• UNFORESEEN SUDDEN ACTION HAPPENING WHILE ANOTHER IS IN PROGRESS:

While I was walking along the river, I saw four beautiful swans.

• USED TO / WOULD We used to cycle the school when we were children. She would help everybody who was in need.

Past CONTINUOUS • UNFORESEEN SUDDEN ACTION HAPPENING WHILE ANOTHER IS IN PROGRESS: While I was walking along the river, I saw four beautiful swans.

• ACTIONS IN PROGRESS IN THE PAST, EVEN CONTEMPORARY: While Bea was ironing, her husband was doing the washing up. I was swimming in the sea this time last week.

• REPEATED ACTIONS IN THE PAST: He was always talking on his mobile when we were in the restaurant.

Past Perfect Simple Continuous • ACTIONS THAT HAD

• ACTIONS THAT HAD BEEN

HAPPENED BEFORE OTHER PAST ACTIONS:

HAPPENING BEFORE OTHER PAST ACTIONS:

The students had already left the room when the headmaster arrived.

They had been trying to put out the fire for over an hour when the firefighters arrived.

(The students left the room. Then the headmaster arrived)

• (They started trying to put out the fire an hour before and they were still doing it when the firefighters arrived).

Present perfect simple PAST

PRESENT

• RECENT ACTIONS: Look! I’ve bought a new mixer. We can make a lot of cakes now.

• ACTIONS THAT HAVE JUST HAPPENED: They have just called.

• ACTIONS THAT HAVE ALREADY HAPPENED OR HAVEN’T HAPPENED YET: She has ALREADY left the station but she hasn’t got home yet.

• LIFE EXPERIENCES: I’ve travelled quite a lot in my life.

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Simple

• SINCE + time when the • FOR + length of time: action began: We have been working since eight o’clock

We have lived here for ten years.

DURATION

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