Progressive Era 1898-1920
Power Point created by Robert Martinez Primary Content Source:Mastering the Grade 11TaksSocial Studies Assessment
Reform movement: attempts to introduce or correct political, social, and economic changes to end abuses and improve people’s lives.
Populist Party • The Populist Party represented farmers, laborers, and industrial workers in their struggle against banking and railroad interests. Their presidential Candidate was William Jennings Bryan.
http://www.snolabor.org/photos/iron2.jpg http://www.balancedlivingmag.com/images/2004/May-June%20Issue/Producer-Only_Farmers'_Markets_grp.jpg http://www.swordofthelord.com/biographies/BryanWilliamJennings.jpg
Populist Ideas • • • • • •
Bimetallism (cheaper currency, silverites.) Direct election of Senators Term Limits for President Graduated Income Tax Immigration Quotas Shorter Work Day of 8 hours.
• Progressives were mainly middle-class dwellers, who believed government should increase its responsibility of human welfare by protecting workers and consumers.
• The rise of industry brought many new problems – brutal working conditions, child labor, political corruption, urban overcrowding, and the abuse of consumers by big business.
• Progressives believe government had been corrupted by big business and political “bosses.”
The “Tiger” was the symbol for the powerful and corrupt Democratic political machine of “Boss” Tweed in New York City.
• Progressives sought to correct political and economic injustices by using the power of government.
Progressives hunting down the powerful and corrupt Tammany Hall “Tiger” in New York City.
Muckrakers • Muckrakers are investigative reporters of the Progressive Era who exposed government corruption and the abuses of industry.
Good Bye - “Boss Rule” • Progressives replaced the rule of “bosses” with public minded mayors. The machine used its control of the city to steal from the public treasury through bribes and padded contracts.
Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall, New York City, NY.
• Political machines provided immigrants with jobs, housing, help in obtaining citizenship. In exchange, these residents voted for candidates recommended by party boss.
Reforming the State Government • Progressive governors took steps to free their state governments from corruption and make them more democratic. • Examples: - introduced the secret ballot - initiative: allowed voters to directly introduce legislation. - recall: elected officials could be removed by voters. - referendum: voters could vote for legislation by ballot.
• Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal , proposed new laws to protect consumer health, to regulate industry, and to conserve the nation’s natural resources.
The Jungle • Novel by muckraker Upton Sinclair describing the unhealthy practices in the meat-packing industry. Roosevelt introduces the Meat Inspection Act in 1906.
• Trust busting is the act of breaking up the illegal trusts and monopolies that flourished during the Gilded Age. The most famous “trustbuster” was Teddy Roosevelt.
Roosevelt as Trustbuster • Roosevelt revived the Sherman Antitrust Act to break up big business trusts. TR Filed lawsuit to break up Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company.
• Both Republicans and Democrats would carry out Progressive reforms: Sixteenth Amendment – Congress can collect income taxes: Seventeenth Amendment – direct election of U.S. senators.
Republican President Taft
• Woodrow Wilson was a Progressive Democrat promising “New Freedom.”
Wilson’s New Freedom • Wilson’s New Freedom included the Federal Reserve Act ,reforming the banking industry by establishing Federal Reserve Banks (controls the amount of money in circulation) & the Clayton Antitrust Act ,establishing the Federal Trade Commission to investigate abuses and regulate business practices.
The Federal Reserve http://www.flickr.com/photos/canine_devotion/356319737/
• The lack of voting rights was seen as a symbol of women’s inferior status and as a violation of democratic principles which led toward the Suffrage Movement.
World War I & the 19th Amendment • When men went off to fight in WWI, millions of women took their places in factories and workshops. Women’s contribution to the war was the final argument in favor of women’s suffrage.
Nineteenth Amendment • The 19th Amendment guaranteed women’s suffrage (right to vote) throughout the United States.
• Susan B. Anthony emerged as the chief advocate for women’s rights. In 1872, she was convicted of violating New York State laws by attempting to vote and sent to prison. Anthony formed the American Woman’s Suffrage Association.
Watchdog of Business • For the first time, Americans looked to federal and state governments for protection from unfair business practices and monopolistic abuses. New agencies were created to break up abusive monopolies and maintain free competition (example: Sherman Anti-trust Act).
Progressive Era Reforms: Role of Protector • The government assumed the role of protector of consumers, children, women, small business, and the environment.
Expanded Democratic participation • Progressives placed greater power in the hands of the people. The 17th Amendment introduced the direct election of Senators. Primary elections gave citizens greater influence in the selection of candidates.
• The 16th Amendment introduced the graduated income tax, changing the whole way the federal government financed its operations, and became a means of correcting social inequalities through a limited redistribution of wealth.