Radio, Recordings, and Sound
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A note on production sound for TV & film Because of our culture’s visual bias, many young filmmakers neglect sound recording
Production sound recording is a media “language” Please learn its vocabulary
Production sound “literacy” • • • • • • • • • • • •
pre-production planning; sufficient crew; microphone selection and placement; overhead booms are usually best; know each microphone’s sensitivity and patter; maintain continuity and consistency; no buzz or room noise; minimize equalization; control input levels during recording; attentive headphone monitoring; wind protection; no clothing noise; etc. etc
Edison's phonograph, 1877
was quickly followed by other technological innovations: the gramophone,
Nickelodeons (1890s, cylinders) and the Victrola, 1906.
Today, audio technologies are being introduced at an even more rapid rate.
The Record Industry initially resisted Radio live music dominated until recording technology improved, and the natural synergy of the two industries was understood.
1920’s -1940’s The golden age of American music? – Jazz, big bands, swing. Composers like Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George Gershwin. Vocalists including Bing Crosby, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Louis Armstrong
Record industry formats Columbia
CBS founder William Paley championed 33 1/3 rpm vinyl LPs
RCA NBC founder Gen. David. Sarnoff championed 45-rpm records
1947: Ampex developed magnetic recording tape 1950’s: format war ends: 33 rpm for albums; 45 rpm for singles popular on Top 40 radio
1950’s, 60s – music & technology
DJ Alan Freed; Col. Tom Parker with Elvis Motown’s Berry Gordy, Jr.
Youth Culture spurred by car & portable radio Rock superstars - cultural explosions: Elvis, Beatles Younger consumers gained market clout
late 70’s, early 80's: cassette piracy woes
1980: “I Want My MTV” campaign
1983: Michael Jackson's Thriller
later 80's-mid 90's: Walkman, CDs dominate
late ‘90s, 2000’s: downloads dominate; iPod; file sharing piracy threatens industry
Record Company Ownership Universal Music Group
French owned by Vivendi, Santa Monica based; not part of NBC/Universal
Sony Music Entertainment
Sony Corporation of America
Warner Music Group
NYC - not part of Time Warner
The recording industry is in steady decline. Piracy and Apple’s iTunes dissolved the old music industry. This is known as “creative destruction.”
Questions for discussion Who programs your musical taste? Are you exposed to enough of the classics: Mozart, Bach, Gershwin, etc. ?
As piracy makes music less profitable, w Whose loss will it be?
Evolution of Radio as a Mass Medium • Pioneers: Marconi; Armstrong; Sarnoff • 1925-30: Improved receivers: 17 million AM sold • Networks: CBS (Bill Paley); NBC (David Sarnoff) • Communications Act of 1934; “traffic cop” of the airwaves: Federal Communications Commission • WWII -- Hitler, Roosevelt, Churchill use radio; radio news comes of age: Edward R. Murrow (CBS) • 1950’s transistor and car radios • 1960’s FM usage grows, usurps AM for music content • 2000’s: introduction of satellite and internet radio
Radio Program Formats Pre-television: live music, recorded music, talk, news, sports, drama and comedy series, musical variety Since TV: recorded music, talk, all-news, religious, sports A radio station’s dominant program style is called its format
L.A. is the #1 radio market in the U.S., including many narrow niche formats
• • • • • •
KUSC-FM (91.5) KKJZ-FM (88.1) KPCC-FM (89.3) KRLA-AM (870) KCRW-FM (89.9) KXLU-FM (88.9)
non-commercial (classical) non-commercial (jazz) non-commercial (talk) commercial (talk) non-commercial (eclectic) non-commercial (music)
How Radio is Supported
Ad Revenue Ranks by Type 1. Local
2. National spot 3. Network
NonCommercial Stations Listener Contributions Educational Institutions Your Tax $$ Private Foundations
Questions for discussion Do you use internet radio, satellite radio or radio via IPTV? Will radio go niche and fragment the way cable TV has?
Does your smartphone play through your car’s speakers?