Reading comprehending strategies

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Teaching Literacy across the

Teaching reading comprehending

John Munro

4/13/2015

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Literacy + learning in secondary classes Although magnetic videotape has the advantages of being cheap and easy to record and re-record on, it is easily damaged when stored near magnets. Magnets can change the pattern that has been stored on the tape. The films that you see at the cinema are different from videotapes. Chemicals create the picture on the cinema film. The film used in cinemas, like that used in normal cameras, cannot be re-recorded on and is more expensive to make. Cinema films last much longer and produce higher quality pictures. Like other ancient civilizations, the civilization of ancient Egypt developed around a river — the Nile. It is the country’s lifeblood. Some 6000 kilometres long, it flows from the wet highlands of central Africa through the desert Red Lands, and finally empties through a long delta into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile’s water, the plants and palms that grew on its banks, and the birds, fish and mammals that lived in and around it all helped to sustain the society of the ancient Egyptians. 4/13/2015

Van Gogh knew that colours can produce moods, emotions and feelings in those looking at paintings. Night Life in Arles by van Gogh has colours that lead to strong feelings.

Before reading

He referred to these colours are ‘blood red’ and ‘pale sulphur’. He used them to form an atmosphere that he said was like ‘a devil’s furnace’… to express the powers of darkness in a low bar’. His paintings were strong through this use of colours. Solve 5x+7 = 37 5x+7-7 = 37-7 5x = 30 5x ÷ 5= 30÷ 5 x=6

After reading

What is literacy ?

Literacy is the knowledge students use to convert written information to knowledge

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How do you read? Read the text. Your goal is re-tell it. As you read, reflect on what you do.  There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally.  The struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

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Things you do Re-read parts of the text more than once You look for the topic You look for Link the text with what they know sentence meanings meaning Work out its topic You look for the You look for Say parts of it in their own words topic meaning Comprehending strategies : readers use employ sentence meanings Use what they know about grammartext to take a range of actions to comprehend and the to You look for You look forlearn sentences from it apart (Munro, 2002). sentence meanings sentence meanings Use punctuation

Link what two or more sentences say You look for discourse You look at wordwork out what words mean in the context. meaning – text thread meanings What the difference between Try tois summarize or review every comprehending so often and comprehension ? You look for discourse meaning – text thread

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Things you do Re-read parts of the text more than once Link the text with what they know Work out its topic

Why do you need to do a range of actions like this ?

Say parts of it in their own words Use what they know about grammar to take the sentences apart Use punctuation Link what two or more sentences say work out what words mean in the context. Try to summarize or review every so often

What readers do as they read a text is to try to build a representation or a model of it in their heads ?

Re-read parts of the text more than once Try to link the text with what they know

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Importance of vocabulary for literacy and learning We are going to read about the rules of indoor soccer / living in ancient Egypt. What do you think of /see in your mind when you hear this?

40 ideas 4 ideas

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Link between vocabulary and text comprehension Between 40% and 50% of the spread in comprehension here is due to vocabularly

NAPLAN Comprehension Score

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Extract 2: Read aloud these ‘ba’ words. bardocucullus

bacciferous

baragouin

batrachophobia

barbigerous

batrachian

baft

baryphonic

Comment on the knowledge and strategies you use to read these words:

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Developing the letter cluster generator Teachers often need to help students  become aware they have a ‘letter cluster generator’ that allows then to learn new letter cluster patterns.

 link these with matching sound patterns.  see themselves as ‘self teachers’.

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What do these ‘ba’ words mean ? Read aloud the following text and work out what they might mean. What do you do to work out their possible meanings. The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket of baft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric. Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him. The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The hood exacerbated his baryecoia and he did not hear much of the speech of those around him. This did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers. Taken from (Munro, 2002) 4/13/2015

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The meaning making motor tells you to • • • • • •

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note the meaning features that might go with the new word try to combine them into an image guess at what the word might mean check your understanding by reading the text again modify your definition if necessary check your impression with what the dictionary says.

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Our self teaching capacity. The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket of baft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric.

Note our self teaching capacity.

Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him.

What do your students know How often each week do they The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The hoodthis exacerbated baryecoia and he did not hear much of out the speech of those around the him. This about ? Dohisthey know 1.Work collaboratively did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers. 1.that they can do this ? meanings of new words ? 2.how to do this ? 2.Talk about the actions they use to do 3.when and why to do it ? this ? 3.Learn to make increasingly more complex links between ideas in the text ? 4/13/2015

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How we think ahead when we read

Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was dark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said.

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Tom’s day in the gym weight lifter Work with weights Goal to strengthen muscles

Heavy weight

Light weight

Shoulder pull downs Do exercises with weights

Bench press Wear particular gear Exercises change how their body looks Gym singlet Taken from (Munro, 2002)

How well did you think ahead ? Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was dark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said.

The flow-on to linked ideas predict, infer, anticipate 4/13/2015

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Tom’s day in the gym Weights need to be painted

weight lifter Weights can be dark colour

Work with weights

Heavy weight

Goal to strengthen muscles Light weight

Shoulder pull downs

Do exercises with weights

Bench press

Wear particular gear Exercises change how their body looks Gym singlet

What knowledge does the reader need to comprehend the text ? What do the words and phrases in the text tell me ?

What does each sentence tell me ?

What does each paragraph tell me ? What is the ‘story threat’ ?

What is it about ? What is its topic ?

Integrate What does it tell the me ? outcomes Manage and direct the reading activity Reader

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What is the text about altogether ? What do I know now that I didn’t know earlier

What is the purpose or disposition of the text? What is its genre ?

We use these types of knowledge simultaneously

New Information

When we read we use several types of knowledge at once may give priority to one or more at any time use most types automatically. 4/13/2015

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What do you do to understand the text ? We use a range of comprehending actions What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ? What does each sentence mean ? What is the main idea of this paragraph ?

What does ‘multiphase method’ or ingredient mean ? What does this picture tell me ?

Review and consolidate the ideas in the text

What do the three paragraphs tell me ?

We learn more about the text we read 4/13/2015

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What do you do to understand the text ? What type of text is this ?

What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ?

What does ‘learn to track’ or annoyance mean ?

What does each sentence mean ?

What is the main idea of this paragraph ?

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What do the paragraphs tell me ?

Review and consolidate the ideas in the text

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What do you do to understand the text ? We change our reading activity as we read Early in reading activity • What is its likely topic ? What type of text is this ? • How will I use this to link what I read ? While reading •What does each sentence mean ? Read it aloud to self, parapahrase, use grammar visualise, question, link with topic, predict. •Work out word meanings. •What is the main idea of this paragraph ? Link sentence meanings, summarise, predict, question answered by paragraph. •What is discourse meaning. Link the set of paragraph meanings. Review and consolidate the ideas in the text What are the main and supporting ideas in the text ? Store in memory How will I use them ? Reflect on ideas, answer questions 4/13/2015

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What knowledge does the reader need to comprehend the text ? Vocabulary, word meanings Meanings of sentences

Meanings of paragraphs, network of concepts

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Integrate What does it tell the me ? outcomes

Manage and direct the reading activity Reader

Topic of text

Purpose, disposition of text

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Literacy knowledge : converting information to knowledge

New Information

An Egyptian King is buried in a Pyramid. 4/13/2015

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How the VELS English Developmental Continuum describes text comprehension knowledge For each six month interval:

The types of texts students are expected to comprehend independently

The types of comprehension outcomes you can reasonably expect for able readers, the types of understanding or interpretations they can form of the types of text

The comprehending strategies students should be able to use independently and with scaffolding

The comprehending strategies or skills The comprehending strategies or skills are organised into three phases, based on what the readers need to do

early in reading a text

while reading it

towards the end of reading a session

Each is matched by an Indicator of Progress for Text Comprehension

The strategies and the matching indicators of progress for getting knowledge ready

work out or decide the likely topic of a text and use this to organise their understanding as they read.

 Orienting strategies: early in the reading activity readers

use its genre to infer it focus or the purpose for which it was written; they show this in the ideas and events they predict it might mention and suggest questions it might answer.

form a reading plan; they show this in the reading actions they say they will use as they read.

The strategies and the matching indicators of progress for while reading read part of the text at a time, aloud or silently.

comprehend sentences, using strategies such as paraphrasing and visualizing as they read

While reading strategies: during the reading activity readers

identify or work out the meanings of words in the context. form paragraph meanings; link sentence meanings and extract main idea in a paragraph by summarising.

respond emotionally to the activity of reading and engage with it while reading infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said. form a discourse meaning; link the main ideas in each paragraph with the topic and identify the emerging perspective of the writer

say questions answered by particular sentences and paragraphs in the text .

The strategies and the matching indicators of progress for getting knowledge ready

review and consolidate what they have read so far.

 Reviewing strategies: periodically during the reading activity readers

review the actions they use while reading.

review their emotional response to a text and to themselves as readers.

The comprehension or ‘reading outcomes’ for the texts comprehend the text literally; they locate, select, link and record information from texts. comprehend inferentially in various ways

students form interpretations of the texts by using the comprehending actions

respond emotionally to the activity of reading and engage with it while reading identify and analyse the use of language in the text

analyse the text in various ways. synthesize ideas in the text

evaluate the text in various ways.

infer the author’s purpose for writing a text in various ways.

You can use the developmental sequence to locate students who have reading difficulties. The indicators saywhat you need to teach next and how you can monitor their learning progress.

VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Students read short fiction and non-fiction texts that describe less familiar ideas and experiences, in written language forms with reduced supporting illustrations and varying sentence forms and informative prose about familiar topics, with a higher level of unfamiliar vocabulary. The text characteristics are indicative of Reading Recovery levels 12 to 14: •varied sentence patterns and written language structures, •the development of a complete story, •literary language, opportunities to extend readers’ understanding of words and their relationships and specialised vocabulary •illustrations that provide low level of support.

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VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading •

decide at least two likely topics of a text and ‘sharpen’ or refine their prediction.



suggest words that might be encountered in the text and say in sentences what it might say.



Describe actions they can use to help them understand what they read, for example, ‘put the pictures in their head’.

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VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Use ‘while reading strategies •

read the text aloud fluently, recognise when their reading is inconsistent with the topic, the grammar or the letter clusters and self correct increasingly efficiently.



transfer to silent reading the integrated use of the topic of the text, the grammar of the sentence or the letter cluster information and spontaneously self correct using these three sources of information.



suggest synonyms for words in the text and possible meanings for unfamiliar words by using its context, the sentence and 1 or more of the letters in it





predict, using the cover, the title and the text they have read so far, whether the text is imaginative or reality-based, what might be said, who, when, where, how and what questions it might answer, infer the feelings of characters, talk about the picture they make while reading a text.



use independently the reading strategies that were previously cued and scaffolded by others. 4/13/2015

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VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Review and consolidate what they have read •

review and consolidate what they have read both when part way through the text and having read it



recall in order the main ideas or events in a text they have read and use connectives to link the main ideas, for example, “first”, “and then..”..



describe how reading verse has a different outcome from reading prose.



read silently independently for short periods of time and retell ‘in their own words’, do the actions described, arrange sentences cards to tell a story and complete simple cloze activities.



talk about how they felt while reading and how reading helped them.

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VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students

• • • • • • •

display literal comprehension by answering questions that relate to information stated explicitly. infer alternative endings for the text, alternative ways of resolving the issue in a narrative. infer the feelings of characters, how they may have felt had events been different, their motives and reasons for their actions, how different characters in a narrative may feel differently about an event. infer the reason for which the text was written. infer how some characters in a text may perceive or feel about other characters in a text and suggest how these feelings may influence how characters behave. link the feeling of characters and events in the story with the experiences of readers. identify how the language used in the text helped readers to have particular feelings or beliefs about it. 4/13/2015

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VELS 2.75

Text level knowledge

Students independently read and respond to longer imaginative texts (for example, chapters in narratives about less familiar ideas), plays, poetry and other verse, informative texts of up to 6 paragraphs or sections and expository-persuasive texts. •language: descriptive words and phrases, some specific terminology with support, mainly simple sentences with more compound sentences, shift from natural language to book language, increased use of direct speech to carry action, first person, less familiar structures. •layout : texts organized into “readable chunks”, print size medium or smaller, illustrations moving away from text support, paragraphs have several sentences and more than one idea, longer chapters, headings, sub-headings with several ideas, contents page and simple glossary contain detail. •content : clear story structure with several ideas, main ideas linked into more complex relationships around a theme, characters developed in greater detail, sometimes with thoughts and feelings that add depth, less familiar concepts supported by familiar vocabulary. 4/13/2015

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VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Use ‘while reading strategies •

read the text independently, either silently or aloud as appropriate; they may switch from one mode to the other if necessary for comprehension or other communication purposes.



comprehend sentences with increasingly more complex forms and ideas by paraphrasing and then visualizing, for example, (1) sentences with more complex adjectives and adverbs (eg., The old man with the squeaky voice was walking shakily); (2) sentences that ‘draw together’ or summarize 2 or 3 earlier sentences in a paragraph. work out the meanings of unfamiliar words in less redundant contexts where components of the meaning are developed across 3 or more paragraphs in a text and gradually refine their understanding of the term.

• •



form paragraph meanings by linking 2 and then 3 sentences; they use synonyms as well as personal and relative pronouns to link matching ideas in different sentences and visualize the sequence of the sentence meanings and what these tell about the main ideas so far (for example, for a narrative, the main characters, the issue, the context). suggest questions that the text answers as they read through it,



decide from the text read so far whether it is narrative, factual or persuasive and the writer’s emerging purpose and perspective.



infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said, what if … questions the text might answer, predict plausible endings, events, the points of view of the writer and infer the feelings of characters.



respond emotionally to the topic and to the activity of reading and themselves as readers. 4/13/2015

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VELS 2.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students • • •

comprehend literally information mentioned explicitly; they (1) locate and link cause and effect in successive paragraphs; (2) identify key information such as the characteristics and features of items, individuals and events. infer (1) possible antecedent events and feelings of characters; (2) cause and effect not stated directly; (3) identify and synthesize the descriptions of characters and events across two paragraphs ; (4) infer the main events in a narrative. suggest the author’s purpose for writing the text and evaluate how well it achieved its purpose through its language, text features, identify its intended audience.



Analyse (1) how a text uses language and text features to portray the qualities of characters or events; (2) compare 2 or more texts that describe similar events, phenomena, issues or relationships, for example, texts from different cultural or historical perspectives re an issue.



For informational text with 3 or more discrete sets of separate facts presented in list of dot point format, they • answer literal and inferential questions that require linking or comparing data • link a short summary or report with diagrams • do/ say in order the actions a sequence of up to 5 actions in less familiar contexts 4/13/2015

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VELS 1.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Review and consolidate what they have read •

Consolidate what they read; they (1) suggest or select the summary sentence for a sequence of narrative sentences or a paragraph; and (2) select the paragraph in a narrative that answers a question asked or that provides particular information.



talk about the actions they use to comprehend better, for example, visualise a paragraph and say what it said.



describe how reading helps them and is a useful activity, for example, to discover what other people are thinking, to teach new ideas efficiently.



review their emotional response to the text and to themselves as readers.



Consolidate what they read; they (1) suggest or select the summary sentence for a sequence of narrative sentences or a paragraph; and (2) select the paragraph in a narrative that answers a question asked or that provides particular information,

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VELS 2.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading 1. decide two or more likely topic/s for a text, suggest words and ideas the text might say and questions it might answer. 2. decide the purposes of different factual texts from their genre, (for example, to tell how to do something, to teach new ideas) and link the purpose with actions they might take after reading and questions they might answer. 1. describe their reading plan, for example, say the actions they might use while reading, how they will keep track of key ideas as they read, identify text information that helps them understand what they read (for example, key words, the questions typically answered by factual text), what they might do if what they read doesn’t make sense.

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VELS 3.75

Text level knowledge

Students independently respond to range of written and multimodal text types and forms. The texts have a range of cultural purposes, for example, to amuse or interest, to inform and to persuade and have associated linguistic structures and features. Types of texts include fiction and nonfiction, film and digital texts, newspapers and magazines and poetry. They have the following characteristics •language : use complex sentences, vocabulary that may be culturally and historically referenced, figurative and metaphoric language. •layout : lengthy text blocks, paragraphs vary in length, complexity and purpose, longer chapters, detailed contents and glossary, complex diagrams and maps, graphs and tables, with complex labelling.

•content: texts comprise complex conceptual sequences that involve contexts that change in time, culture and history. The conceptual relationships are unfamiliar to students and unusual characters and are differentiated. Fiction, verse and expository texts include explore an examination of themes of interpersonal relationships, motives and moral /ethical challenges in a range of real and virtual contexts. Nonfiction texts explore a range 4/13/2015 41 of relevant factual topics.

VELS 3.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading •

work out possible topic/s of a text, for example, for an historical novel, an explanation of a technological discovery, an analysis of imagery in poetry or a comparison of newspaper recounts. They predict ideas that may be mentioned and questions it might answer.



decide the purposes of a text from its genre, for example, they distinguish between a technological explanation of alternative energy uses and media texts about the value of alternative energy in terms of deciding the questions each text might answer and what each type might tell the reader.



describe their reading plan for the types of texts described in 3.00 and include summarising and reviewing.

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VELS 3.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Use ‘while reading strategies •

read the text independently, either silently or aloud as appropriate.



comprehend complex sentences that relate to cultural or historical perspectives, values and attitudes and that express sentence meanings in historically/culturally specific ways. They use sentence comprehending strategies such as paraphrasing and visualizing and linking with the topic and purpose of the text to interpret and evaluate matching sentence meanings.



work out the meanings of unfamiliar culturally specific words and phrases by linking text information including morphographic, culturally specific semantic and syntactic information.

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VELS 3.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Use ‘while reading strategies •

• • • •

use paragraph comprehending strategies that begin to take account of cultural /historical perspectives; they (1) synthesise a discourse meaning across of 2 or 3 sentences in a paragraph and summarize it; (2) use the summary to predict events and infer possible consequences; (4) say the questions answered by each paragraph in the text; (3) use topic sentences for factual texts to identify the main questions likely to be answered by each paragraph . say questions answered by particular sentences and paragraphs in the text. They identify the questions answered by visual presentations such as photographs, diagrams and tables. summarize a sequence of paragraphs in a longer text, taking account of the historical/cultural language and use key words to describe the sequence of main ideas. infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said, what if … questions the text might answer, predict plausible conclusions and outcomes for newspaper articles. respond emotionally to the topic and to the activity of reading and themselves as readers.

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VELS 3.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students

Review and consolidate what they have read •

consolidate what they read in a range of ways; they suggest or select (1) the summary sentence for paragraphs in a text; and (2) the paragraph that answers a particular question or provides particular information.



talk about the actions they use while reading to help themselves to read, for example, how to recognise and use to use historical/cultural perspectives when interpreting text.



review their emotional response to a text and to themselves as readers, eg., how reading historical/cultural texts helped them learn and is useful, for example, to discover what other people think, teach new ideas.

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VELS 3.75

Text level knowledge

Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students • •

• •

• •

comprehend literally; they locate, select, link and record information from texts. They link images with specific written information and say the main idea of the visual presentations. comprehend inferentially and support their interpretations with evidence both from the text and their general knowledge; they infer (1) possible earlier motives and characteristics; (2) cause and effect across paragraphs; (3) the nature of possible changes by reading between the lines; (4) 'what would happen if......?' by changing ideas in the text; (5) why characters and events are described in particular ways and suggest alternative ways of describing them. identify how texts are constructed for particular purposes and how they present particular cultural or historical values and attitudes. evaluate and compare texts that relate to the same topic from different cultural or historical perspectives in terms of their use of language and form, the topics they examine, their use of imagery, characterisation, dialogue, point of view, plot and setting, their purpose for using text, how they represent characters, points of view and events in different ways. infer and analyse how writers from different cultural or historical perspectives tell us about the feelings, attitudes, beliefs and motives of characters and see how the characters ‘see the world’. evaluate and analyse how writers differ in cultural or historical language they use to communicate. 4/13/2015 46

What do you do to read this?

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What do readers need to do to use question to show comprehension?

Interprets an expression in a persuasive text.

Identify the main purpose of the text ?

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What do you need to do to interpret the expression ?

What do you need to do to work out the purpose of the text ?

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Which comprehending actions do you need to use to show comprehension?

Recognise a synonym

Summarise the text, extract the main idea from the paragraph ideas and infer why the text was written

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What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item % % Correct Number Correct Group State

%Response %Response State Group

01 A 02 C

99 94

97 81

C1 A1 B2 D4

03 A

97

97

04 B

50

36

05 C

93

86

06 D

63

58

07 A

86

08 A 09 D

Skill Assessed

Finds clearly stated information in a simple text . Finds clearly stated information in a simple text.

B1

B3 A6 B3 D11 B3

A2 C16 D31 A6 B1

A6 C31 22 A11 B3

Makes connections between ideas in a sentence.

A 28 B14 Interprets the main idea in a simple text.

81

A30 B 4 C2 B 5 C5

84

69

B11 C 5

B 22 C 8 Finds clearly stated information in a recipe.

65

47

A16 B3 C16

A22 B8 C22

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BC8 D3

Finds key information in a simple text.

Finds clearly stated information in a simple text.

Recognises a feature of a recipe.

Connects information across two sentences in a recipe. 51

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What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item % % Correct Number Correct Group State

%Response State

%Response Group

Skill Assessed

10 B 11 D

94 63

78 36

A2 C2 D1 A6 C3 D14 Finds clearly stated information in a recipe. A16 B3 C17 A25 B11 C28 Identifies an instruction in a recipe.

12 C

94

81

A5 B1 D1 A 4 B6

13 A 14 D

92 87

78 67

B 1 C7 B 3 C14 D3 Finds clearly stated information in a postcard. A5 B3 C5 A 8 B11 C14 Makes connections between ideas in a postcard.

15 B

74

56

A8 C12 D 6 A14 C11 D17 Makes connections between ideas in a postcard.

16 B

66

42

17

62

39

A7 C7 D18 A8 C17 D 28 Understands the purpose of a postscript in a postcard. Sequences events in a postcard.

18 C

85

67

A3 B7 D3 A11 B D6

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Finds key information in a postcard.

Identifies the purpose of a postcard. 53

What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item % % Number Correct Correct State Group

%Response State

%Response Group

Skill Assessed

19 D 77 47 A 8 B 8 C7 A19 B17 C17 Finds clearly stated information in a story. 20 B What76comprehending 39 A 14 actions C6 D4 doA 42 C11 D8 Finds clearly stated information in a story.

to use toCachieve 21 B readers 36 need36 A11 49 D4 this A11 C36 D17 Makes inferences about characters' actions in story. 22 C 23 C

outcome ? 39 51 71

50

24

39

22

A14 B19 D13 A17 B25 D19 Identifies the meaning of a word in a story. A 5 B 20 A 3 B 42 Makes connections between the text and pictures in a story. Sequences events in a story.

25 B

67

53

A16 C5 D10

A 22 C14 D8 Makes inferences about a character in a story.

26 B

40

31

A6 C25 D28

A11 C31 D28 Interprets the main idea of a persuasive text.

27 D

35

28

A5 B 54 C4

A17 B47 C8 Uses contextual cues to interpret a persuasive text.

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What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item % % Number Correct Correct State Group

%Response State

%Response Group

Skill Assessed

28 B 49 44 A25 C10 D14 A 22 C25 D8 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets. 29 A What42comprehending 28 B34 C10 D13doB 28 C14 D31 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph. actions to use achieve 30 A readers 77 need44 B8toC5 D7 this B 28 C8 D19 Identifies characters' feelings in a story. 31 B 32 A

outcome ? 39 44 59

53

A10 C14 D28 A14 C31 D17 Reads on to interpret a story. B11 C16 D 11 B 22 C17 D8 Infers a character's motivation in a story.

33 C

44

50

A27 B15 D11 A31 B8 8

34 B

38

33

A10 C21 D28 A19 C11 D33 Finds clearly stated information in a story.

35 D

40

17

A17 B15 C26 A19 B 28 C Makes inferences about a character in a story. 33

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Finds key information in a story.

55

What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item % % Number Correct Correct State Group

%Response State

%Response Group

Skill Assessed

28 B 49 44 A25 C10 D14 A 22 C25 D8 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets. 29 A What42comprehending 28 B34 C10 D13doB 28 C14 D31 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph. actions to use achieve 30 A readers 77 need44 B8toC5 D7 this B 28 C8 D19 Identifies characters' feelings in a story. 31 B 32 A

outcome ? 39 44 59

53

A10 C14 D28 A14 C31 D17 Reads on to interpret a story. B11 C16 D 11 B 22 C17 D8 Infers a character's motivation in a story.

33 C

44

50

A27 B15 D11 A31 B8 8

34 B

38

33

A10 C21 D28 A19 C11 D33 Finds clearly stated information in a story.

35 D

40

17

A17 B15 C26 A19 B 28 C Makes inferences about a character in a story. 33

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Finds key information in a story.

56

What readers need to do to show comprehension Read and comprehend text

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Read and interpret task

Use task to reflect on text

Select matching option

interpretation

57

The set of actions readers need to use to complete a task 1. locate information, make a direct verbatim match and restate verbatim linked information in the text or link information verbatim . 2. recognise/ use synonyms to link text and task 3. use meaning making motor to work out word meanings 4. use grammar to link ideas, for example, to make links between a noun and a pronoun. 5. analyse, paraphrase + visualize the sentence / alternatives. 6. link two ideas that are in different sections of the text by summarizing one or more paragraphs, work out and use the main idea and possibly paraphrase or visualize. 7. link ideas that are separated in the text by selecting the main ideas and then sequencing them. 8. compare two or more sentences or ideas and you may need to paraphrase. 9. infer, go beyond what is said, for example, to infer emotions or motives for actions 10. predict by visualizing the ideas described in one or more sentences and use their existing knowledge to infer related events, cause and effect, feelings, etc.

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Taken from (Munro, 2010)

58

Year 3 Reading 2011 Item % Corr % Corr %Resp Skill Assessed Num Aus State Lauriston Choosing a Classroom Pet

Comprehension strategies used

7

Identifies one reason for an opinion in a simple opinion text.

Paraphrase

Matches a speaker with a statement in a simple opinion text.

Locate information, make a direct verbatim match

90

Locates directly stated information in a simple opinion text.

Locate information, make a direct verbatim match

55

Identifies the purpose of a speaker's response in a simple opinion text.

Infer, locate, visualise, paraphrase

93

Identifies the role of a speaker in a simple opinion text.

Link ideas, infer

8

82

88

100

These are comprehending actions 74 93 we need to 79 teach readers to use

9

73

79

to achieve these 46 50 outcomes

10

11

60

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65

Taken from (Munro, 2011)

59

Year 3 Reading 2011 Item % Corr % Corr %Resp Skill Assessed Num Aus State Lauriston

Comprehension strategies used

Turtle Frogs 1

88

91

97

Locates directly stated information in a short information text.

2

91

94

97

Locates directly stated information in a short information text.

3

84

88

97

Locates directly stated information in a short information text.

4

85

89

100

Connects information across sentences in a short information text.

5

73

76

83

Makes a simple inference from a short information text.

Infer, paraphrase, analyse

6

64

67

66

Identifies the purpose of an illustration in a short information text.

Infer, read illustrations

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Taken from (Munro, 2011)

Locate information, make a direct verbatim match, scan for key words Locate information, make a direct verbatim match, scan for key words Locate information, make a direct verbatim match, scan for key words Link ideas, infer

60

Year 3 Reading 2011 Item % Corr % Corr %Resp Skill Assessed Num Aus State Lauriston

Comprehension strategies used

How to play SPUD: 12

77

82

97

Retrieves directly stated information in a procedural text.

Locate information, make a direct verbatim match

13

64

69

79

Makes an inference from a procedural text.

Infer connections between 2 ideas

14

47

50

62

Locate information, make a direct verbatim match

15

53

57

79

16

61

66

69

17

51

55

76

Makes a link across adjacent sentences to locate information in a procedural text. Applies new information to change a given outcome in a procedural text. Matches a rule to a photograph in a procedural text. Categorizes extra information into a section of a procedural text.

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Drawing conclusions and linking ideas from different sections of the text. Match image with statement

Analyse, paraphrase and visualise the statement. 61

Year 3 Reading 2011 Item Num

% Corr Aus

% Corr State

%Resp Laurist

Skill Assessed

Comprehension strategies used

Rosie the musician: 18

72

78

97

Uses letter writing conventions to identify the author of a note in a narrative text.

19

49

53

59

Identifies the intended effect of a device in a Key information, understanding narrative text. purpose of different devices.

20

36

38

55

21

56

59

83

22

42

44

66

Identifies the purpose of a meeting in a narrative text. Identifies a character's attitude from a narrative text. Identifies the reason for a character's comment in a narrative text.

23

54

63

69

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Recognises the personality of the main character in a narrative text.

Link understanding of letter writing format to text.

Work out word meaning in context by linking ideas. Go beyond what is said and infer emotions or motives. Infer emotions by using key word meanings and link ideas across the text. Link separated ideas by summarising one or more paragraphs. 62

Which comprehension items are easiest ? Skill Assessed

01

99

3.4

03

97

3.4

02

94

3.4

10 B 94

2.7

12 C 94

4.5

05

93

3.4

13 A 92

4.5

14 87 D 07 A 86

4.5

Finds clearly stated information in a simple text . Finds key information in simple text. Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. Finds clearly stated information in a recipe. Finds key information in a postcard.

reading comprehending actions

locate information and make a literal verbatim link locate information and make a literal verbatim link locate information and make a literal verbatim link literal, delete sentence recognise features of the genre

locate information and make a literal verbatim link literal

2.7

Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. Finds clearly stated information in a postcard. Makes connections between ideas in a postcard. Recognises a feature of a recipe.

18 C 85

4.5

Identifies the purpose of a postcard.

08 A 84

2.7

Finds clearly stated information in a recipe.

summarise the literal information and infer its purpose paraphrase and combine two sentences literally

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literal, delete words recognise a type of text

63

Which comprehension items are hardest ? 04

50

28 B

49

31 B

44

3.4 Makes connections between ideas in a sentence. 7.7 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets. 4.3 Reads on to interpret a story.

33 C

44

4.3 Finds key information in a story.

29 A

42

7.7 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph.

26 B

40

7.7

35 D

40

4.3

24

39

2.2

34 B

38

4.3

21 B

36

2.2

27 D

35

7.7

04 4/13/2015 50 3.4

visualise the sentence, what question does it answer, what does ‘refers to’ mean? Who is ‘them’ talking about ? recognise synonym paraphrase paragraph and link ideas, recognise ‘life’ is linked with bacteria literal verbal comprehension

visualise what has been said about wildlife, summarise paragraph Interprets the main idea of a persuasive recognise that ‘focus’ here means the purpose (synonyms), text. paraphrase, know where the purpose is often written, link the two sentences Makes inferences about a character in a visualise the sequence of events, reflect on and infer how story. CRL’s ‘feelings’ change over the story Sequences events in a story. visualise /summarize, extract the sequence of ideas from across the text, paraphrasing for ‘drums begain to play’ Finds clearly stated information in paraphrase ‘..eighteen protozoan…’ as ‘..eighteen species of story. protozoan… Makes inferences about characters' visualize the two paragraphs, link ‘shining gold’ with actions in a story. ‘glistened’, infer across the text Uses contextual cues to interpret a summarize text to get ‘plastic bags are bad for environment persuasive text. and if people pay for them, they will use them less’. Paraphrase each alternative, compare with title, as “How does it fit with title ?” and see that the others don’t match it. Makes connections between ideas in a visualise the sentence, what question does it answer, 64 what sentence. does ‘refers to’ mean? Who is ‘them’ talking about ?

To work out the reading actions demanded by each item A group of teachers analyses each text and its tasks on NAPLAN or other tasks reading using the types of comprehending actions. •The group reads each text and works through the tasks. For each task,

decide the action/s a reader needs to use to answer the item correctly

Does it need readers to use two or more actions in a particular sequence ?

the group decides collaboratively the comprehending actions needed to answer it

•Use as much as possible a consistent set of action descriptors across the items. This helps you group items that need similar actions and with planning the teaching. •Have some students in a class attempt the items again and talk about what they did. Guide them to use ‘think aloud’ strategies.

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• Add the reading comprehending action for each item to the Item Analysis Report for that item. You can also identify the actions that match each incorrect responses. • Identify the comprehending actions a class used to complete the tasks and which ones they might need to be taught. • use SORT to arrange the % correct for a group in order of difficulty. This will tell you

the reading actions the /class or individual students have in place

the reading actions that need to be taught

note the most common confusions or misinterpretations by the class for an item.

• You can prepare reader profiles for your group or for individual students. • treat the NAPLAN interpretations for your class and individual students as indicative. Once you are aware of possible areas of comprehending strength and difficulty, you can then look for further evidence in reading activities. 4/13/2015

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What are the High Reliability Literacy Teaching Procedures? A set of explicit procedures that teach readers to •



Why ‘high reliability ? work out likely topics for the text, why it was written, ideas it might Eachit teaching say, questions might answer, plan how they will read it: they get their knowledge ready for reading and learning procedure has substantial research comprehend each sentence; read it aloud, segment it, paraphrase support for its and visualise it, link with the use topic



use and learn new vocabulary



link sentence meanings into paragraph meanings, summarize the text



link each paragraph with questions it answers



review, consolidate store in memory and automatize what was read.

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The order for teaching HRLTPs Getting Knowledge Ready

Reading aloud each sentence

Segment it

Paraphrase

New vocabulary

Link sentence meanings

Consolidate and review 4/13/2015

visualize

Link with topic

Summarise

Store in memory

What questions does text answer?

automatize 68

How do you build these into your teaching ? While reading +learning

Beginning a lesson: Get knowledge ready GKR

Teach new ideas • •

• • • 4/13/2015

new vocabulary new sentence ideas new main ideas new topic new attitudes and dispositions

Review + consolidate •

• •

Review new meanings, ideas, link with synonyms and images Store in memory Automatise recall , use of meanings 69

Getting ready or orienting actions

• • • • •

• •

•Focus on possible topic of text. The teacher guides the students to link text with what the readers knows by using the title, the cover, pictures in the text or blurb. What do I think the text is about? What pictures do I make in my mind when I hear the title/look at the cover….. What might happen ? Link ideas in text with what the reader already knows, use mapping, networking. What ideas could it mention ? If it is about ….. what else might it say ? Focus on how the ideas (such as pictures, key words they have identified) might be said : How can I say these ideas in sentences ? Focus on questions it might answer: What are some who / what/ how/ why/ when/ where questions I could ask about it ? Focus on possible words that might be in the text. What words might be in the text ? How would they be spelt ? What other words might be used (synonyms for them) ? Focus on possible reasons or purposes for writing it. What are different ways of thinking about this topic ? Why might the author have written this text ? How might its purpose affect how it is written ? Readers say how they will read, the actions (strategies) they will use. "What will I do as I read/ if I come to a part that I don’t understand ? Focus on reader’s self efficacy as a reader Am I ready to read? What more do I need to know before I begin to read ?

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Taken from (Munro, 2002)

70

While reading actions Sentence level reading strategies for literal comprehension of each sentence break text into digestible bits, decide where to pause. Where will I pause and ask : What has it told me ? listen to themselves as they read and paraphrase the text. What are other ways of saying this sentence ? How can I tell myself what it says ? act on ideas, put themselves in the context. What would I see /hear/do /feel If I were in the story ? visualize what was read. What picture can I make of the sentence ? monitor meaning at the sentence level. Does it make sense/fit in? Re-read if necessary. Conceptual level reading strategies for summarizing what has been read, monitoring and for inferential, evaluative and dispositional comprehension of text: review and consolidate, What do I know now? How does this fit with the topic ? What has happened so far?, underline, note down useful information infer, Why did that happen? Relate then to what they expected think ahead, predict, anticipate. What might happen next ? evaluate dispositional techniques. How has the text so far attempted to influence my view ? Word level reading strategies to work out unfamiliar words use context of word + initial few sounds, word analysis and re-read. How can I say the word ? How will I work out how to say it ? How can I break it up ? work out the meanings of unfamiliar words. What does the word do in the sentence ? What does it tell me about ? What picture have I made of the sentence ? What is another word I could say for it? 4/13/2015

Taken from (Munro, 2002)

71

Reviewing and post reading actions • Link positive emotion response with the text How I liked the text? Were ideas useful /interesting? Did I feel happy / sad ? How could it have grabbed me better ? • Review understanding of the text at the various levels. What did the text tell me? The text didn’t say this but if …. ? • Why was the text written ? Did it say what I expected it to say ? How well did it achieve its purpose ? • How can the text be interpreted from different points of view or perspectives ? What was the writer’s purpose in writing this text ? What techniques used to influence the reader to take a particular interpretation ? • Review and evaluate the reading strategies used, particularly the strategies being learnt at the time. What reading actions did I use to help me understand the text ? • Store in memory what has been learnt. What key new ideas have I learnt; how has my knowledge changed? How do they fit with what I know already ? • Identify the new language and literacy knowledge that has been learnt What new ways of saying things have I learnt ? What new words were in the text ? • Automatise and practise reading aloud and silently similar text to achieve increased fluency.

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Taken from (Munro, 2002)

72

How each reading action is taught. The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or individually. Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students to automatize how they use each. Teaching sequence: students

are scaffolded to use strategy

say it in words (so they can transfer it) and evaluate how it helps them (this motivates them to use it in future)

4/13/2015 Taken

say they will use the strategy before they begin to read a text; they cue themselves in to comprehending the text

from (Munro, 2002)

Say without cueing they will use it, practise applying the strategy more widely, say when they will use it

use it automatically, link strategy with other strategies they know.

73

Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy strategies Imagine you are Automatize the What questions talking to a key ideas we might the text answer woman living have learnt. you ?language What words GKR experiencesforGKR in ancient Egypt. Link with related might come up in What would you automatize ideas we have the text ? Spell see /hear ? learnt earlier them, synonyms What are the main ideas / vocabulary we have learnt today Review and ? Other ways of saying consolidate them / images ?

Women in ancient Egypt

Look at the text. Say the title in other ways. Tell yourself what the GKR bridge to text pictures show. What will you do as you read it ? Read a sentence aloud. Listen to yourself Read aloud as you read it.

What are other ways of saying the sentence ? Sentence What do you think �.. What picture does it meanings tell you to make means ? Work out What is the main idea What questions do in your mind ? in the paragraph ? these sentences what it could mean from Summarize the sentence. What What picture doestoit Question links answer vocabulary paragraphs other words tell you to make in for us about women are some you could use ? your mind ? in ancient Egypt? Taken from (Munro, 2002) 4/13/2015 74

Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy strategies Look at the text. Say the Recall experiences What questions title in other ways. and imagery Tell: yourself what bridge to textthe GKR : experiencesmight the text answer GKR knowledge,use for you ? What words pictures show. pictures and real might come up in What will you do GKR : language life contexts the text ? Spell as you read it ? them, synonyms Read a sentence aloud. What are the main Any topic Read aloud Listen to yourself ideas / vocabulary we Review and as you read it. have learnt today ? consolidate Other ways of saying What are other ways of them / images ? Sentences: saying theparaphrase sentence ? What do you think ..andWhat visualise picture does it What is the main idea What questions do means ? Work out tell you to make Summarize What questions does in the paragraph ? these sentences whatvocabulary it could mean from in your mind ? paragraph What picture does it sentence/paragraph answer the sentence. What answer ? tell you to make in for us about women are some other words your mind ? in ancient Egypt? you could use ? Taken from (Munro, 2002) Automatize the key ideas we have learnt. Link with related Automatize ideas we have learnt earlier

How each reading action is taught. The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or individually. Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students to automatize how they use each. Teaching sequence: students

are scaffolded to use strategy

4/13/2015

say it in words (so they can transfer it) and evaluate how it helps them (this motivates them to use it in future)

say they will use the strategy before they begin to read a text; they cue themselves in to comprehending the text

Say without cueing they will use it, practise applying the strategy more widely, say when they will use it

use it automatically, link strategy with other strategies they know.

76

One way of teaching each strategy 1. 2.

3. 4.

Take a text about a topic you are teaching and split it into two parts, each of about 250 words. Write 5 comprehension questions for each part and put these at the end of each part. Try to match up the two parts as much as possible in their difficulty. Ask the students to read the first part by themselves and then answer the questions. Before, or as they read the second part, cue them to use the strategy you are wanting them to learn to use, for example, to paraphrase each sentence as they read. Have them answer the comprehension questions.

Part A

Read this text and Rights and privileges answer the questions

Wealthy women After about 1500 BC, wealthier women in ancient Egypt could own and sell property, earn an income, work as part-time priestesses, defend themselves in court, and decide to marry or divorce. They decided who would inherit their belongings, and had custody of any children if there was a divorce. By contrast, women in ancient Greece — even wealthy women — had very little freedom. They lived most of their lives indoors and were regarded as the property of their menfolk. 1.How were wealthy women in ancient Egypt more independent than women in ancient Egypt ? your father In2.If which case were was a pharaoh in ancient Egypt, what rights could help you be it independent easier to ? Why was it understand text easierhad? aWhat 3.How do wethe know that ancient Egypt ? legal system ? made it easier ? 4.What does leading a privileged life mean ? 5.What aspect of a pharaoh’s life doesn’t happen in our culture ?

Read this textPart andB answer the questions. Before you begin to read….. Poor women As you readfamilies, ….. poor women helped their Besides caring for their men in the fields, carried water in pots from wells or rivers to their homes, and made bread or beer (both a major part of the diet of ancient Egyptians). They might also work as servants, temple dancers, midwives, perfume makers, musicians, weavers and professional mourners (people who were ‘hired’ to weep and wail during the funeral procession of an ancient Egyptian). Wives and mothers Marriage ceremonies were not a special event; the language of ancient Egypt does not have a word for ‘wedding’. Between wealthy families, marriages were little more than a business arrangement. Some wealthy men had many wives. The first wife and her children had the highest status. 1.What were some jobs of poor women in ancient Egypt ? 2.How do we know the ceremony surrounding death was important in ancient Egypt ? What could you do in the future to 3.How do we know cosmetics were important in ancient Egypt ? make it easier to understand the text youbeing reada?professional I will saymourner each sentence in 4.What does mean? my helps 5.What is oneown aspectwords. of life inThis ancient Egyptme that doesn’t happen in our culture ?

Contrast the strategy teaching approach with the content teaching approach Read the section about Women in ancient Egypt. Then answer the questions and we’ll correct your work.

We’ll read together the section about Women in ancient Egypt. As we go I’ll ask you to think about what says. Then we’ll answer the questions and we’ll correct your work.

A

B Which teacher

1.Takes account of individual differences in what students know at beginning of lesson ? 2.Takes account of individual differences in how students think and learn during lesson ? 3.Helps students feel more confident of what they are learning ? 4/13/2015

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How we use the HRLTPs in teaching

To scaffold the students to think like comprehending readers as they work through and learn from a text

To teach the students to use each reading action /strategy independently and automatically

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the students learn to think like comprehending readers as they work through and learn from a text

the students learn to carry the reading actions with them to any context in which they need to read

80

A case study of leading literacy Context for the case study Low academic achievement and low student literacy levels concerned the leadership. Literacy was seen as a key link to successful academic learning.

Desired outcome Enhanced student literacy skills, to be achieved through enhanced teaching knowledge.

To achieve outcomes teach students ‘how to be more literate’ while learning the regular curriculum.

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A case study of leading literacy Means for achieving enhanced teaching knowledge Teach a group of teachers to be ‘leaders of literacy learning’ (MLOLLs) in the school. They guide embedding enhanced literacy knowledge in the school : 1.Each MLOLL was guided to build literacy knowledge; 1.Each MLOLL was trained to teach the strategies explicitly to a group of students as part of their regular classroom teaching 1.Each MLOLL practised modifying their teaching to scaffold students to use particular strategies); 1.The MLOLL team planned with SLT a term by term and a within- term professional learning plan and student learning plan 1.The MLOLL team planned with SLT a schedule to monitor student learning outcomes. . 4/13/2015

Taken from (Munro, 2007)

82

A case study of leading literacy in a secondary college Term 1

Outcomes for students

Outcomes for MLOLL Teach students to use GKR and vocabulary explicitly. Prepare colleagues to transfer GKR and vocabulary. Use student monitoring measures for GKR + vocabulary.

2

Teach students to use paraphrasing + visualising explicitly. Prepare colleagues to transfer paraphrasing and visualizing. Monitor student use of paraphrasing + visualising.

3

Teach students to use strategies to comprehend paragraphs. Prepare colleagues to transfer strategies for comprehending paragraphs. Monitor student use of comprehending paragraphs.

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Students use GKR and vocabulary explicitly

Outcomes for other teachers Support students to transfer GKR and vocabulary and apply it in their subject.

Students use paraphrasing and visualizing, automatize GKR and vocabulary

Support students to transfer paraphrasing and visualising and apply it in their subject.

Students use strategies to comprehend paragraphs, automatize paraphrasing and visualising

Support students to strategies for comprehending paragraphs and apply it in their subject.

Taken from (Munro, 2010)

83

Within term planning Week

1-4

MLOLL

Other teachers

Assess reading comprehension and strategy use Teach targeted comprehending strategy explicitly

3-4

Monitor students’ use of the strategy Video teaching students to use the strategy Teach colleagues how to embed the strategy in their teaching to facilitate transfer

5-10

Continue to teach students to use strategy automatically

6-7

Monitor colleagues’ application of the strategy and assist them to transfer the strategy to their teaching Assess reading comprehension and strategy use

9-10

Plan how to embed the strategy in their teaching and what it ‘looks like’ in student learning outcomes Scaffold students to use the strategy in their content area

Monitor colleagues’ application of the strategy and assist them to transfer the strategy to their teaching

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Taken from (Munro, 2010)

84

The school leader’s awareness of their school’s literacy knowledge and capacity to enhance Assessing your school’s capacity to teach literacy : What does your school know about effective literacy teaching ? 1.What is your school’s agreed set of beliefs about how literacy is learnt and taught ? 1.What procedures does it use to interpret assessment outcomes in terms of its teaching ? 1.How well does your school respond to literacy learning issues ? What does it do to •

identify and analyse literacy learning issues using a learning-teaching framework ?



implement modified literacy teaching ?



monitor the effectiveness of the modified teaching ?



incorporate the modified teaching into its explicit literacy teaching framework ?

. 4/13/2015

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The school leader’s awareness of their school’s literacy knowledge and capacity to enhance How to bring new literacy teaching knowledge into your school. A three strand strategy to implement improvement in literacy teaching 1.Teachers are guided and scaffolded to monitor and modify their classroom teaching 1.School leadership provides instructional leadership for literacy 1.Some teachers are trained to ‘drive’ the literacy improvement: they •

Build the literacy teaching knowledge needed to scaffold improved student outcomes



Learn procedures for guiding the professional learning of colleagues



Procedures for bringing new literacy teaching knowledge into the school



Lead the professional learning of PLTs.

4/13/2015

Taken from (Munro, 2010)

86

Example of an embedding strategy MLOLL learn GKR and MMM

SLT – develops a whole school literacy improvement

Staff learn of literacy improvement focus

MLOLL use GKR and MMM in their teaching and video their activity,

1.

Become familiar with teaching procedures

1.

1.use procedures to monitor student outcomes,

2.

Plan a broader dissemination program in the school including a term outcomes plan.

Informed to progress with GKR and MMM

2.

See videos of teaching in PLTs

3.

encouraged to monitor how well their students use GKR and MMM

2.share the embedding with school leadership, 3.report outcomes to staff, inform staff of what they are doing and how it assists teaching, 4.plan a broader dissemination program with SLT

5.begin to plan professional learning activity in GKR and MMM for their colleagues. MLOLL learn sentence reading comprehension strategies and begin to implement professional teaching in GKR and MMM for their colleagues.

3.

Work on teaching activities in GKR and MMM for colleagues

Learn to provide instructional leadership for implementing GKR and MMM

Scaffolded to implement GKR and MMM

Repeat with other literacy strategies

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Taken from (Munro, 2010)

87

Developing an explicit literacy PL program for your school

88

Planning for professional learning

89

Planning the professional learning pathway for the school Steps in planning the professional learning pathway Your term by term outcome for each class in school: what will you be doing differently at end of each term ?

the professional learning plan for each teacher; how will your learning for each term outcome be implemented ?

the week by week implementation plan for each teacher and student group; how will literacy learning develop over each term ?

Taken from (Munro, 2005) 90

The plans Three aspects of planning and doing • the outcomes plan • the professional learning plan for each teacher /PLT • the implementation plan for each teacher

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91

Your plans Three aspects of planning and doing

• your outcomes plan • your professional learning plan • your implementation plan

What new literacy outcomes will you achieve each term ? 92

Key questions to assist with action planning

Be clear on what you want as outcomes Have an explicit focus on PL and staff activity: By end of Term : •

What will staff be doing differently?



What will students be doing differently?



What will SLTs be guiding, scaffolding differently ?

93

Literacy goals for each term each year Term outcome

Term students

teachers

Term 1

•Know how to get their knowledge ready

•trial getting knowledge ready in teaching

Term 2

•use getting knowledge ready when they learn

•use getting knowledge ready in teaching

•have improved vocabulary knowledge and strategies

•trial vocabulary teaching

•use GKR •work out new word meanings •paraphrase text they read

•teach vocabulary and MMM

Term 3

4/13/2015

•trial teaching paraphrasing

94

Set goals for each term each year ? Term outcome

Term students

teachers

Term 1 Term 2

Term 3

95

You set goals for each term Term outcome

Term students

teachers

Term 1

Know

how to get their knowledge ready

trial

Term 2

use

use

Term 3

use

getting knowledge ready when they learn have improved vocabulary knowledge and strategies

getting knowledge ready in teaching getting knowledge ready in teaching trial vocabulary teaching

GKR teach vocabulary and MMM work out new word meanings paraphrase text they read trial teaching paraphrasing 96

Plan for how the staff will learn to do each procedure Three aspects of planning and doing •

your literacy outcomes plan

• your professional learning plan •

your implementation plan

How you will learn to do the new teaching

97

Possible staff learning options each term During term

Activity New literacy teaching you will do independently ? New literacy teaching you will trial ? New literacy teaching you will be coached to do ? New literacy teaching you will see modeled/demonstrated in teaching ? Your collaborative lesson planning ? Instructional leadership you will receive ? Novel student activities and outcomes? 98

Term outcome

Staff learning plan The professional teaching that each staff member will receive can be planned using the following Weekly planning proforma week

build procedures into topics to be taught

Trial See teaching procedures in procedures classroom modelled, coached

Work on procedures in PLTs to discuss options

share, pooling new teaching knowledge

1-2 3-4

5-6 7-8 9-10

Taken from (Munro, 2005)

99

Types of professional learning activities Build the literacy teaching strategies into your regular teaching. Embed gradually the literacy strategies into topics you will be teaching during the term. To do this analyse the content you will teach and the written materials you will use. Plan how you will build in the strategies to help you to teach the key content knowledge. For any lesson you need to decide the strategy/ies you will teach explicitly and the strategies you will scaffold. This planning is often done best in small group planning activities where two or more colleagues can work together to do this. Taken from (Munro, 2005) 100

Types of professional learning activities Clarify what effective literacy learning strategies look like. In parallel with the literacy teaching, identify what the students will be doing, saying when they are learning.

101

Types of professional learning activities Try out or trial parts of the literacy teaching procedures After you have planned how you will embed particular literacy teaching procedures in topics you will teach and you have decided what the student learning strategies will look like, decide how you will try out or trial parts of the literacy teaching procedures in your teaching. It is often a good idea to do this in a small way first so that you can retain control. How do you monitor this ? Use the indicators of progress in student learning you decided earlier.

102

Types of professional learning activities Coaching and /or demonstration of literacy teaching in your class ? You may want to see the teaching procedures demonstrated/ modelled by peers ? Will coaching in the context of your class be implemented ? How often do you receive feedback from peers re your innovations in teaching ? Your colleague can evaluate your teaching using the checklist described earlier.

103

Types of professional learning activities Work on building a group knowledge of the literacy teaching Make the opportunity to build group knowledge of the literacy teaching with colleagues, where you can share and pool the new teaching experiences with colleagues also working on this and with ‘critical friends’ who are not implementing this. This group knowledge provides a platform for further professional learning. It ensures that every teacher’s knowledge is enhanced, every one is ‘talking the same language’ and teachers can share their talents, discoveries and knowledge.

Taken from (Munro, 2005) 104

Types of professional learning activities Work on building a group knowledge of the literacy teaching Make time to reflect on your professional practice. Try to get the opportunity to reflect regularly on how the innovative literacy teaching professional practice is going. Reflecting backwards in time over what has happened allows you to evaluate events and see possible links and levers to pull that you didn’t see at the time. The reflective activity is particularly important when you encounter obstacles and barriers. Reflecting into the future allows you to visualise possibilities and to see what could be possible. This can often help you see where you could go. Taken from (Munro, 2005)

105

Types of professional learning activities Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning. It is important that SLT take moral ownership of program and show this in their commitment to, interest in and advocacy for your professional learning, particularly when they are talking to staff about it. They 1.show active ownership and sponsorship 2.convey to staff that they see your work here as critical for the school’s future progress. 3.show to the staff that they believe the HRLTPs can solve problems for their school. 4.acknowledge to the school that you are working for the school’s future.

Taken from (Munro, 2005)

106

Types of professional learning activities Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning. instructional leadership by the SLT is important for the success of the literacy intervention. Many SLTs need to learn how to do this most effectively – it is a new role. You can help he SLT ‘get ready’ to do this through your interaction. You can meet regularly with SLT and discuss 1. the program you are implementing, 2. its progress and 3. obstacles you encounter. They can spend time in your classroom when you implement the literacy strategies to see what they ‘look like’ and be a realistic advocate for this work.

107

Types of professional learning activities Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning. The SLT needs to resource your professional learning. It needs to support your learning in each of the areas above. In terms of needing to build a group knowledge of the new teaching, they may need to resource your fortnightly review-evaluation-planning discussions with colleagues in other schools. The SLT needs to be aware of the obstacles you encounter in implementing the teaching and discuss ways of resolving these both for you and for other staff in the future. Resolving them now can remove them later.

.

108

Types of professional learning activities Increase staff awareness of the HRLTPs so that they are closer to ‘being ready’ to adopt them. ‘Bring the staff on your professional learning journey. Report regularly what you are doing at staff meetings. Help staff 1. know what HRLTPs are, look like in teaching. 2. see how they deal with learning problems, low student engagement 3. have confidence that HRLTPs can make their job as a teacher easier 4. see that HRLTPs can overcome obstacles you have encountered. Invite staff to see them being done in your classroom. You can video short scenarios and show to staff at PD days. You can feed back to the staff what you are doing and how it is progressing. They need to see that you are working for them. Taken from (Munro, 2005)

109

Your plans Three aspects of planning and doing • your literacy outcomes plan • your professional learning plan • your implementation plan

Staff learning : Weekly planning proforma How will you implement the new teaching procedures in your classroom ? 110

Staff implementation : Weekly planning proforma Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1 Week

Use orally

1

GKR visualize

2

GKR say

GKR vizualize

3

GKR bridge

GKR say

GKR vizualize

GKR bridge

GKR say

GKR vizualize

GKR bridge

GKR say

4 5

When cued

Read,do, say evaluate

Taken from (Munro, 2005)

Say and do when read

Apply

vizualize

Student learning : Weekly planning proforma Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1

Session

Use orally

1-3

GKR

4-6

vocab

7-10 11-13

When cued

Read,do, say evaluate

Say and do when read

Apply

GKR vocab

GKR vocab

14-16

GKR vocab

112

GKR

Student learning : Weekly planning proforma Week Useteaching orally When Read,do, say strategy Say and dofor Plan for new cued aspects of each evaluate when read 1

1

2 3 4

GKR imagery Students can talk about images, possible words, bridgewords vocab

GKR imagery words, bridge

Students can talk about images, possible words

vocab

GKR imagery Students can say what they do to words, bridge GKR

vocab Students say what they will do to GKR

5

Apply Term

GKR imagery words, bridge

vocab GKR imagery Students automatically do GKR and say what they words, bridge have

Taken from (Munro, 2005) 4/13/2015

113

Know how to build the implementation on student learning Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1 Wee k

Use orally

1

paraphras

2

paraphras+ visualize

3

4 5 4/13/2015

When cued

Read,do, say evaluate

Say and do when read

Apply

paraphras paraphras+ visualize

paraphras

paraphras+ visualize

paraphras paraphras+ visualize

paraphras 114

How do you build these into your teaching ? A weekly schedule to scaffold students to use GKR strategy Lesson 1 Visualize and organize knowledge

Visualize the topic and talk about their imagery

Say what you know in words and sentences

Bridge over to the text 4/13/2015

Lesson 2

Think Pair Share

Interview Write brief article showing what someone could say about topic Why might the text be written?

Lesson 3

Say what questions the topic might answer

How is the text organized ? 115

Monitoring your progress Know how your school will gather data re 

Staff learning progress re literacy teaching



student learning progress re literacy outcomes



Improved instructional leadership re literacy leadership

Know how your school will interpret data and map it into action

116

Staff learning plan The professional teaching that each staff member will receive can be planned using the following Weekly planning proforma week

instructional leadership activities

Build staff Student awareness, outcomes + feedback from feedback peers

1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8

9-10

117

Monitoring your progress How can you gather data about students’ literacy?  AIM test  Torch test  PAT test  Probe test  Teacher assessment reports  ‘standardized relevant texts’

118

Monitor the success of professional learning How will the school monitor Change in staff knowledge re literacy ? Improvement in literacy teaching practice ?

119

learning feedback from students ? Feedback from students:     

Existing knowledge used and valued? Feel engaged in learning-teaching ? See they are learning new ideas ? See themselves making progress ? Believe they can learn successfully through literacy?

120

What will the PL program target ? For individual teachers the PL program for literacy will enhance  literacy knowledge  literacy teaching knowledge  literacy teaching practice

121

The issue : how to reposition the school in its literacy outcomes

professional learning

School is here now

4/13/2015

School leadership wants school here

pedagogic leadership

122

How to lead pedagogy ? Our aim : to unpack what this means for a LOPL. professional learning

School leadership wants school here

pedagogic leadership School is here now

4/13/2015

To be effective leaders of pedagogy, what do the leaders of professional learning and school leadership team need to know/ do /believe?

123

Some key questions when you are leading literacy What are you leading ?

Why will you lead ? What is the value in the leading ?

What are the outcome of leading ? To where ?

From where ?

How will you lead ? How have leaders ‘trodden the path’ before ?

4/13/2015

124

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