Regional and National Growth
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Regional and National Growth Mr. Stikes
SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it. a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets. b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny. c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school. d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference. e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism.
The Industrial Revolution in America a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.
Industrial Revolution in the U.S. • British Origins: – Protected trade secrets
• Samuel Slater (1768-1835) – Brought technology to America
• Rise of the Factory System
Eli Whitney (1765-1825) • American Inventor • Know for: – Cotton Gin – Interchangeable parts
Cotton Gin • Mechanical device that removes seeds from cotton
Cotton Gin • Cotton production increased
Interchangeable Parts • Parts are identical – Allows parts from one machine to be replaced by parts from another
• Eli Whitney
DID YOU KNOW: Interchangeability was probably developed by French gunsmith Honoré Blanc around 1790.
– Government contract for rifles – Did not deliver – Why?
Manifest Destiny b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.
Westward Growth of the U.S.
U.S. Expansion • Into Florida – Adams-Onís Treaty (1819): acquired from Spain
• Into the West – Texas (1845): Republic of Texas annexed – Oregon Territory (1846): border settled w/ Britain – Southwest (1848 & 1856): Ceded from Mexico
Texas • Originally owned by Mexico • Independence from Mexico: 1835 – Annexed by U.S. – 1845
• Major Figures/Events: – Sam Houston – Texan leader/ 1st Texan Pres. – Stephen Austin – Large landowner, organized independence movement
– Santa Anna – Mexican dictator/Pres – Alamo – Battle, in San Antonio, all Texans dead
Manifest Destiny • Belief that America’s destiny was to control all of North America • Purpose:
To spread… – – – –
Christianity Civilization Technology Democracy
Reform Movements c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.
To Form Again • What is reform? • Examples of reform movements: – Against use of alcohol – Against slavery – For women’s right to vote
Temperance • Social movement • Goal: – Ban consumption of alcoholic beverages
Temperance • Major Temperance Organizations: – American Temperance Society – Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
“The multitude, with few exceptions, drank rum. Ministers drank, churchmen drank, men drank, women drank; and children too. Every merchant sold it. It was a leading article of trade…crops could not be gotten in, or out, or off the field without it. It was as necessary for mechanical business, as water power, or tools. No marriage vows were complete without it, and no funeral party could mourn if it were wanting, it was as necessary to bury the dead, as a coffin, or a shroud. No favored parent, could rejoice over a new born babe, without plenty to drink. No building could be raised but by rum. It was an absolute necessity…at parties of all kinds…the Autobiography of Charles sweetener of social intercourse” Harding, 1869.
Abolitionism • Social movement • Goal: – Ban slavery
• Major Figures: – William Lloyd Garrison – Frederick Douglass – Lyman Beecher
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) • Abolitionist leader – Advocated violence to end slavery
• Started The Liberator, a famous abolitionist newspaper
Assenting to the "self-evident truth" maintained in the American Declaration of Independence, "that all men are created equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights -among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," I shall strenuously contend for the immediate enfranchisement of our slave population. Inaugural Editorial from William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator, 1 January 1831
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) • Abolitionist leader – Freed slave
• Worked for William Lloyd Garrison – Garrison = too militant
• Started new newspaper: North Star
Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) • Abolitionist leader – Preacher
• Father of Harriet Beecher Stowe
Public Schools • Social movement • Goal: – Provide free education to all
• Major Figures: – Horace Mann
Horace Mann (1796-1859) • Educational reformer – 1st Massachusetts Secretary for the State Board of Education
• Ideas: – Basic education should be free • The government should pay, not individual students
– Free public libraries should be found throughout the country – Teachers should be well trained
Education…will draw property after it by the strongest of all attractions… Education then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is a great equalizer of the conditions of men, the balance wheel of the social machinery…an ignorant man is but a little better than a swine… Horace Mann, Twelfth Annual Report of Horace Mann as Secretary of Massachusetts State Board of Education, reprinted in H.S. Commanger, Documents of American History (1943) p. 315-317.
Women’s Rights d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference.
• Social movement • Goal: – Provide women with the right to vote
Women’s Suffrage • Reform movement • Goal: Provide women with equal rights – Why start with the right to vote?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) • Leader in abolition and temperance movements • Helped organize Seneca Falls Conference in 1848 – Wrote their “Declaration of Sentiments”
• Helped found the National Woman Suffrage Association
Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) • Leader of women’s suffrage movement – Why was voting so important?
• Helped found the National Woman Suffrage Association
Lucretia Mott (1793-1880) • Early leader of Women’s Suffrage movement – Also active in abolitionism
• Quaker – Believed in equality
• Gave opening and closing address at Seneca Falls Conference
Seneca Falls Conference (July 19-20, 1848) • Meeting in Seneca Falls, New York • Major Accomplishment: – Declaration of Sentiments
• Leaders: – Elizabeth Cady Stanton – Lucretia Mott
DID YOU KNOW: Frederick Douglass, a freed slave and abolition advocate, also attended this meeting. He was the editor of a newspaper, the Rochester North Star
Jacksonian Democracy e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism.
Election of 1824 • All men who ran were Democratic-Republicans • Split along regional lines: – William Crawford (GA) – John C. Calhoun (SC) – John Quincy Adams (MA) – Henry Clay (KY) – Andrew Jackson (TN)
Election of 1824 • “Corrupt Bargain” – No candidate won majority of electoral votes – House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams as President • Role of Henry Clay
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) President of the United States: 1825-1829 (6th)
• Son of John Adams • Popular in New England – Served as Secretary of State under Monroe
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) President of the United States: 1829-1837 (7th)
• Famous war hero – Battle of New Orleans (1815) – Occupied Florida (1818)
• Populist – Man of the people
Jacksonian Democracy • Belief that the people should govern • President = Representative of all Americans • Move towards democracy and away from republicanism
Expanding Suffrage • Voting requirements were relaxed – Almost all white males could vote
• Record for Minorities: – Slaves?
– Native Americans? – Women?
Rise of Popular Political Culture • Election of 1828 – Mud-slinging
Development of American Nationalism • Self-made man – “pull yourself up by your bootstraps”
• Tough – “Old Hickory” – Strong / Warrior – “Hunters of Kentucky”
Major Events in Jackson’s Presidency • Native American Policy – Indian Removal Act (1830)
• Nullification – John C. Calhoun & South Carolina
• 2nd Bank of the United States – Charter renewal? – Specie Circular
Native American Policy • Indian Removal Act (1830) – Relocated Native Americans to west of the Mississippi
• Resistance – Armed:
– In Court:
Journey of Cherokee to reservations in the Indian Territory; ~ 4,000 died
Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux, 1942
Trail of Tears
Nullification • Doctrine that says states do not have to follow or enforce laws they believe are unconstitutional • Nullification Crisis (1828): – Import tariffs on some items doubled – Hurt southern states – South Carolina threatened secession
2nd Bank of the United States • Charter renewal? – Henry Clay – pushed for early renewal – Jackson veto
• Specie Circular – U.S. Treasury could only accept specie as payment for land