Remedial Reading - E

January 19, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Performing Arts, Drama
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Road Map to Reading

Road Map to Reading Emergent Literacy


Beginning Reading

Grade I

Developmental Reading

Grade II-III

Functional Reading

Grade IV

Critical Reading

Recreatory Reading


Noting details Following directions Recognizing Rhymes Answering wh questions Identifying specific sounds Giving the main idea Discrimination of Speech sounds Classifying ideas


Using expressions in appropriate situations Talking about topic of interests Giving series of directions Using variety of sentences Direct and indirect discourse Retelling stories


Noting details Making inferences Following directions Sequencing Getting the main idea Possible relationships Association Evaluating ideas Literary and appreciation skills Cause and Effect Relationship Key sentences Supporting sentences Ending / Conclusion


Tracing and copying Filling out of forms Writing an ending Writing letters Writing announcements Outlining Writing summaries, diaries, journals

Pre-reading •Schema activation •Setting of purpose

Motivation Motive Question Unlocking of Difficulties Picture Action/gestures Structure Context clues Story Background Setting Author Time

During Reading

Shaved reading Read aloud strategy Action/gestures Gradual Psychological Unfolding (GPU) Guided Reading (GR) Fan Fact Analyzer (FFA) Semantic Webbing (SW) Survey, Question, Read (SQR) Think-Aloud Tune in, Question, Listen, Review (TQLR)

Post Reading

 KWL Sequence Chart Story Map Brain Storming Story grammar Mapping / Clustering Charting Graphic Organizer Graphic Maps




To establish purpose, Activate background, Sustain motivation, and Provide direction

During reading

Reader-Text interactions

To prompt an active response to reading

After reading


To extend and elaborate Ideas from the text

Before reading


Provide a context for the text – this arouses interest and assists comprehension by giving students some idea of what to expect.


Give students something to do while they read – something to look for, note down and be prepared to report upon. As well as signposts, this provides additional benefit of teaching students to read for a purpose.


Provide extensions/ expansions /explorations – Once the student have grasped the general idea of the passage, provide them further work to explore the language of the text for more details, creativity, critical thinking, possible outcome.


The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange the items into different groups. Of course one file may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do a few things at once than many. In short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise.


A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated, soon however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to for see any end to the necessity for this task to the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life.

THINKING BEFORE READING STORIES Good readers are always thinking. Good readers think about questions like the ones on this cart before reading.  I wonder what kind of story this is? A myth? A legend? A folk tale? A fable? A tall tale? A fantasy? Realistic fiction? A tale of adventure? I wonder what this story is about? Is there a summary about the story? What does it say? I wonder if this story is like others I’ve read by this author.

THINKING BEFORE READING STORIES I wonder if this story is exciting or boring? I wonder what I can learn from reading this story. I wonder if I can read most of the words easily. I flip look through the book to see. I wonder how long it will take me to read this story? Are there interesting illustrations in this book? Will this story be a good one for the book report I have to do? 

THINK ABOUT THIS . . . . 1. What are some other questions you ask yourself before reading stories? 2. Do you ask yourself the same questions if you’ve already read or heard the story?

THINKING WHILE READING ABOUT STORIES Good readers always want to make certain that they understand what they are reading. They often do this by thinking about what they read and by asking themselves questions? Try these questions when you are reading stories.


Who is the main character and what is his or her problem? What does the character want to happen? I wonder what the character will do to solve the problem? What situations or other characters will help him solve the problem?


What situations or other characters might try to keep the main character from solving the problem? What is this character like? What does the character do and say that helps me understand what he or she is like? What words could I use to describe the way the character looks, acts and feels?


Where does this story take place? Can I describe it or draw a picture of it? The character is/is not doing what I thought he would do because … I wonder what he or she will do next? I wonder how this story is going to end? I cant wait to get to the ending.

THINKING AFTER READING STORIES Here are questions a reader might think about after reading a story:  Do I remember most of what happened in the story and why it happened?  Did this story turn out the way I thought it would? Why? Why not?  How would I have solved the problem differently?


What have I learned from this story? What does/did it mean to: Be brave? Be loyal? Be dedicated? Be poor? Live long ago in Spain? ____________ (Fill in the blank). How is this story or characters like others?


I wonder if the library has other books by this author? I seem to like stories like this. Why? How can I share this story with my classmates and friends? Discussions? Book summary? An illustration? A book talk? I wonder if I could write a story like this?


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Find the animals hiding in the following sentences. Example: Close the door at once! (rat) That will be a real help. She came late every day. He came to America today. Eric owes me ten cents. We made errors in each one. Do good workers succeed?

HIDDEN WORDS 7. If I shout, he’ll hear me. 8. If Roger comes, we’ll begin. 9. We will go at two o’clock. 10. Is it the sixth or seventh? 11. In April I only came once. 12. I’ll sing; you hum on key. 13. I made a Xerox copy of it. 14. She clothes naked babies. 15. At last, I, Gerald, had won.

HIDDEN WORDS 16. Was Pilar mad, ill, or glad? 17. That man ate eleven cookies. 18. Your comb is on the table. 19. We’re sending only one book. 20. He regrets having said that. 21. If Al concentrates, he’ll win. 22. When I withdrew, Al rushed in. 23. He called Mikko a lazy boy. 24. It’s only a kilometer away.

TEACHING STRATEGIES GRADUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL UNFOLDING (GPU) What is GPU?  guiding principle in the framing of questions  gradual -easy to difficult  psychological- shows appreciation/, recognition/ elation/ satisfaction/ success 1.

GPU Q.1____________________ R.1


(related to R .1)



(related to R.2



DIMENSION ORDINARY ( D O) questions grouped according to dimensions - literal - inferential ( inferences, conclusion, judgement) - critical ( reaction to author’s ideas ) - integrative


 

SENTENCE SENSE SENTENCES complete comprehension of a sentence use of dimension questions grammar questions

SENTENCE SENSE SENTENCES The pupils planted seedlings of trees in their backyards yesterday. A. 1. Who planted trees? Answer:____________________ 2. What did they plant? a. seedlings of vegetables b. seedlings of plants c. seedlings of trees 3. Where did they plant? a. in their schoolyards b. in their backyards c. in their frontyards


4. When did they plant? Answer:_____________________ 5. Whose backyards were planted with tree seedlings? Answer:______________________ B. 6. Why do you think did the pupils plant trees? a. Because each pupil is required to plant a tree b. Because everyone else is doing it. c. Because the pupils had nothing to do at that time. 7. At what time of the day do you think they planted?

SENTENCE SENSE SENTENCES a. early in the morning b. at noon c. late in the afternoon C. 8. In your own thinking, how will you describe the pupils? a. honest b. industrious c. obedient 9. Give your reason for your answer in number eight. Answer:_______________ D. 10. In the sentence, the word pupils tells a. where b. who c. when

FAN TECHNIQUE OR FACT ANALYZER visual strategy to extend pupils’ comprehension  help students think how the selection relates to their own experiences.  stimulates divergent thinking Steps to follow: 1. Draw a crescent in which the title of the selection is written. 2. Fill in the blanks with the selections major fact and information 3. Draw semantic webs. 


7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Provide two types of core question carefully. Pupil start to read the selection carefully. Teacher asks pupils to close their books. Teacher asks all-important fact they remember from the story of the passage Teachers discuss briefly all comments/results as shown in the fan. Write the core question. Elicit response represent both by material in the text and the predictions based in the text. Write core questions in the semantic web Elicit responses extending their experiences. Evaluate pupils reading comprehension by traditionally asking questions at different comprehension levels.

SAMPLE MATERIAL FOR FAN TECHNIQUE Water When there are typhoons, there is too much water. In fact there is more water than we need.Rivers overflow and flood the nearby areas. Big floods destroy plants and properties. They leave many people dead and homeless so with animals. Not having enough water is also bad. Rice fields dry up. Animals like carabaos and cattles become sick and sometimes die of thirst. Rivers dry and fish die, too. People have learned to store water so that they will have water to use when they need it. Sometimes water is stored in tanks. The water is pumped into the tanks from the well. Rain water may also be stored in tanks. The water goes from the tanks to the houses through pipes.

SAMPLE MATERIAL FOR FAN TECHNIQUE On many farms, water is stored in ponds. Animals drink the water from the ponds. In other places dams are built across rivers or streams. A dam blocks the flow of water. The water fills up the stream higher and higher. A gate in the dam is opened to let out enough water needed. Some of the big dams we have in our country are Pantabangan, Ambuklao, and Binga. The water from these dams is used for irrigating fields and for producing lights.


water What can cause WW water shortage

How will water shortage affect life

THINK ALOUD Steps: 1. Choose a short story for modeling. 2. Model the strategy. 3. Pair the pupils off. 4. Reconvene the class and ask the pupils to report what they thought of while reading and if it made sense. 5. Go back to the original pairs and let them finish the story. 6. Put the whole class together and have the pupils report how the thinking aloud proceeded. 7. Ask the class these questions: Is the strategy good for understanding stories better? Do you want to repeat the strategy with other stories?

TRIO TALK Steps: 1. Divide the class into groups of three. Identify students in each group: A,B,C 2. Provide text for reading 3. Person A reads the paragraph/selection to the team; Person B summarizes what was read aloud 4. Person B reads the next section and Person C retells or summarizes it to Person A… 5. Repeat the rotation until all the assigned selection has been completed.


Have the groups discuss answers to these questions: a. What did you notice in the material read? b. Of what did the material remind you? c. How did the material make you feel? d. Write three questions relating to the most significant parts of the information?


used during and after the reading of the story  suitable for any grade whenever a plot is long or complicated How to use the Story Map?  The teacher should begin the Map with the class as a whole. Thereafter, each episode can be entered by small groups. Include only salient facts.  After one or two modelings, students should be able to do their own maps for stories. 

STORY GRAMMAR idealized internal representation of the parts of typical story and the relationship among those parts.(Mandler and Johnson)  set of rules that will define both a text’s structure and an individual’s mental representation of story structure.(Gordon& Braun) 

STORY GRAMMAR Six Major Elements (Mandler & Johnson) 1. Setting-introduces the main character of the 1st episode, may include time, locale or props 2. Beginning- precipitating events occur 3. Reaction- the main character’s reaction to the beginning and his formation of a goal. 4. Attempt- the planful effort to achieve a goal 5. Outcome- the success or failure of the attempt 6. Ending- the long-range consequence of the action, the final response of a story character or an emphatic statement


an instructional approach teacher works with a small group of children with similar reading behavior and can all read similar texts Purpose is to make pupils focus on meaning but use problem-solving strategies to figure out new words, deal with difficult sentence structure and understand concepts or ideas they have never before encountered in print. The ultimate goal is independent reading.

GUIDED READING Running Guided Reading 1. Select a book 2. Introduce the book 3. Read the book 4. Respond to the book and learn about reading 5. Assess behavior

JIGSAW READING Item -Copy of the selection -Assignment agreement form -Discussion question

Number Needed 1 per student 1 per student 1 per student


Explaining the Learning Task. The teacher will read the poem out loud to the class. The students are told to discuss the questions in their group, come to agreement, and write down their answer to hand in. They will also share their answer to the rest of the class

JIGSAW READING PROCEDURE 2. Explaining the Goal Structure Tell the students they are to work together in answering the four questions and give any further instructions. They are to turn in one set of answers for the group which reflects the group consensus. Their signature on the paper indicates that they agree with and understand the group’s answers and the reasons for them. As group members, they are to make sure that everyone has their say and that everyone understands. The group’s answers will be graded on how well they defended them. Answer can be divergent by including a minority report, if necessary. Logical explanations of answers will be looked for. Points will be taken off for illogical and unfounded arguments or easy answers which show lack of discussion depth. Alternative or additional grading plan:


The teacher tells the class that each group starts with 100 as their grade. After the discussion, group members are chosen by the teacher at random to explain their group’s answers. If this is not successfully done, 10 points are deducted from the grade for each person who can not explain the answers.


Monitoring 1. Contributes ideas 2. Makes sure everyone understands 3. Encourages others to contribute 4. Expresses feelings 5. Gives direction to the group’s work


Evaluation Groups are asked to evaluate their group process by answering the questions: 1. How well did we work together as a group? 2. What would help us work together better?

WORD BUILDING The “ANT” family What kind of an ant works with figures? An accountANT.Get it? Now what kind of an ant: 1. Lives in the jungle? 2. Is far away? 3. Is extraordinarily large? 4. Works for a master? 5. Is good-natured? 6. Is unchanging? 7. Is luxurious? 8. Is one who takes part? 9. Is a very small child? 10. Is sleeping?

WORD BUILDING Is very bright? 12. Is empty? 13. Is immediate 14. Is plentiful? 15. Has moved to different country? 16. Is meaningful? 17. Is something that grows? 18. Has influence over others? 19. Is unsure and indecisive? 20. Lives in a certain place? 11.

DIRECTED READING-THINKING ACTIVITY (DRTA) includes 3 stages: - readiness for reading - active reading comprehension - reacting to the story  develops comprehension & contextual reading for all levels  applies to all narrative and expository texts 

DIRECTED READING-THINKING ACTIVITY (DRTA) Procedure Create an expectation for story theme 2. Guide active reading while students read the story silent sample questions: What do you think is going to happen or is happening? How do you know that? (On what you are basing your answer) Can you support your information or interpretation? 3. Reacting to the story as a whole by the teacher and students 1.


4. Analyze of the story in relation to other stories, personal experiences and the author’s purpose. 5. Discuss the strategies used to understand the story.

DIRECTED READING ACTIVITY teacher assumes the major instructional role. Procedure 1. Readiness for reading (vocabulary, overview of the story’s setting and purpose for reading) 2. Reading of the story silently 3. Reinforces and extends concepts introduced in the story , makes use of varied activities 

METAPHORS relate words and concepts to already known objects thru their likeness or differences Procedure 1. selects a key word or concept from the assigned text 2. Creates a metaphor describing the key attributes of the word or concept 3. Describing the likeness or differences of metaphor & the key word. Ex. A cloud is a puddle in the sky. It is like a puddle because a cloud is made of water droplets. 4. students create metaphor ex. “ What animal is like a volcano?” 

METAPHORS 5. Students decide on a metaphor.”A dragon is like a volcano.” 6. Explain the similarity “A dragon is like a volcano because they are both hot and spit fire” 7. Discuss the differences 8. Students discuss the meaning of the words. Modification: A brainstorming or listing of option in group situation can facilitate understanding. They would justify their metaphors and decide on one or two metaphors to use as the concept is developed in class.

LISTENING-THINKING ACTIVITY teaches students to listen to stories  involves questions on what will happen, what happened, what is happening  adds intonation and gesture to facilitate learning Procedure 1. Brainstorms on what the story about based on the title 2. Reads to a turning point 3. Models questions..”I wonder why the author said….?” 4. Summarizes what was read, relating to the “I wonder.. “ statement. 

LISTENING-THINKING ACTIVITY 5. From the summary, develop a prediction. “Oh I know, I bet…” 6. Students make predictions or bets 7. Teacher reads the next turning point and so on. 8. Students talk about what they are thinking using “ I wonder..” statements. 9. Students tell what happened so far. Teacher adds his own interpretation. 10. Review the previous predictions, decides if they want to keep the prediction. 11. Revise or make new prediction

LISTENING-THINKING ACTIVITY 12. Alternate reading and discussing until the end of the story. 13. Uses non-verbal to check understanding . If confused, teacher discusses the story line. 14. Class discussion on the story as a whole, relating various interpretations.

STORY DRAMA develops reading comprehension using the natural dramatic abilities to act out their interpretation of the story. Procedure 1. Select a story with intriguing plot 2. Read until there is enough information abut the characters to role play the story. 3. Assign character roles to the students 4. Use key props for the drama in a concrete way 5. Start the drama at the point of interruption 6. Dramatize prediction through role play 

STORY DRAMA 7. During the process, exchange of roles can be assigned 8. Discussion of students’ prediction 9. After the dramatization, students writes an ending of the story 10. Finally, students finish reading the story 11. Discussion and comparisons between the dramatization and the story ending 12. Discussion of personal interpretation evidenced in the drama and how their individual viewpoints influence those interpretations.


used for studying content area text that includes survey, question, read, recite and review Procedure 1. Select content-area text 2. Introduces five steps in a short mini-lesson 3. S- Survey- skim for information in understanding the overall framework 4. Q-Question- students develop questions that will be answered in the passage 5. R- Read- read section by section 6. R- Recite- answering the posed questions 7. QRR are repeated for each section 8. R- Review- review questions & answers for the entire text relating them to overall framework to facilitate recall 

WORDS TO LIVE BY: If teachers are to become healers for their students, they must first work to heal themselves… Ultimately, the answer can be found in faith, trust, and grace, which is the final bulwark of a Christian teacher.


THANK YOU VERY MUCH! Mrs. Myrna J. Hipolito Education Program Supervisor

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