Renier ppt 19 05

January 20, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Conformity
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Media Studies Renier van Loggerenberg

SECTION B – CASE STUDY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

REPRESENTATIONS IN THE MEDIA THE IMPACT OF NEW/ DIGITAL MEDIA CHOOSE & ANSWER 1 Q ONLY 1HR – 48 MARKS IN-DEPTH AREA OF RESEARCH INVOLVING THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF A RANGE OF MEDIA TEXTS 6. DEVELOP VIEWS UPON REPRESENTATION/DIGITAL MEDIA 7. WRITE ABOUT YOUR VIEWS IN THE EXAM. SUPPORTING THEM WITH EVIDENCE AND EXAMPLES FROM YOUR OWN CASE STUDIES 8. DETAILED REFERENCES TO SPECIFIC TEXTS YOU

YOU WILL NEED TO: 1. ANALYSE HOW REPRESENTATIONS ARE CONSTRUCTED IN VARIOUS MEDIA TEXTS 2. CONSIDER THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION AND THEIR PRODUCTION 3. CONSIDER CROSS-CULTURAL FACTORS (IF RELEVANT) 4. EXPLORE THE APPEAL OF REPRESENTATIONS FOR AUDIENCES AND HOW







http://reniermedia.wordpress.com/2013/06/0 7/globalisation-theory/

Audience Theories http://reniermedia.wordpress.com/2012/06/0 4/audience-theories/

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Gay men Lesbians Black men Transgender Muslims Mental disabilities. East Asians.

WHICH THEORIES APPLY?



Dyer's (1979) theory that the powerful often stereotype the less powerful. e.g. Hegemonic institutions such as The Sun who often stereotype vulnerable groups such as teenagers who are portrayed to be violent and hedonistic. Chomsky's (1988) theory that hegemonic institutions such as the Hollywood factory are related to Political Economy. Butler's (1990) theory that heterosexuals gain much more representation in media as compared to homosexuals. Del Sola Poole's (1977) theory that new media has utopian qualities - Mention 'Public Sphere' and the opportunity of people representing themselves through new media such as E-Media.

Laura Mulvey's (1995) theory that males are often the subjects whereas females are often the objects - The 'Male Gaze' - Females are viewed voyeuristically. Habermas's (1991) 'Cultivation theory' that violence and sex in media has caused people to be 'desensitised' due to repeatedly viewing it. The 'Uses and Gratification' theory - "What do we do with media?" Relates to active audiences. Relationship of media and personal lives, escapism etc The 'Hypodermic needle' theory - Relates to passive audiences. The idea that the media influences are thinking and opinions

Audience Theory

Three questions: 1) Why do audiences choose to consume certain texts? 2) How do they consume texts? 3) What happens when they consume texts? 



1.

2. 3.

There are three theories of audience that we can apply to help us come to a better understanding about the relationship between texts and audience. The Effects Model or the Hypodermic Model The Uses and Gratifications Model Reception Theory

The 







Effects Model

The consumption of media texts has an effect or influence upon the audience It is normally considered that this effect is negative Audiences are passive and powerless to prevent the influence The power lies with the message of the text



This model is also called:

 The 





Hypodermic Model

Here, the messages in media texts are injected into the audience by the powerful, syringe-like, media The audience is powerless to resist Therefore, the media works like a drug and the audience is drugged, addicted, doped or duped.

 1.

2.

Key evidence for the Effects Model The Frankfurt School theorised in the 1920s and 30s that the mass media acted to restrict and control audiences to the benefit of corporate capitalism and governments

The Bobo Doll experiment This is a very controversial piece of research that apparently proved that children copy violent behaviour

 The 

Bobo Doll Experiment

This was conducted in 1961 by Albert Bandura

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In the experiment: Children watched a video where an adult violently attacked a clown toy called a Bobo Doll The children were then taken to a room with attractive toys that they were not permitted to touch The children were then led to another room with Bobo Dolls 88% of the children imitated the violent behaviour that they had earlier viewed. 8 months later 40% of the children reproduced the same violent behaviour





The conclusion reached was that children will imitate violent media content There are many problems with the experiment. What do you think are the flaws with the methodology? Does it indeed prove that children imitate violent media content?



The Effects Model (backed up by the Bobo Doll experiment) is still the dominant theory used by politicians, some parts of the media and some religious organisations in attributing violence to the consumption of media texts.











Key examples sited as causing or being contributory factors are: The film Child’s Play 3 in the murder of James Bulger in 1993 The game Manhunt in the murder of Stefan Pakeerah in 2004 by his friend Warren LeBlanc The film A Clockwork Orange (1971) in a number of rapes and violent attacks The film Severance (2006) in the murder of Simon Everitt







In each case there was a media and political outcry for the texts to be banned In some cases laws were changed, films banned, and newspapers demanded the burning of films Subsequently, in each case it was found that no case could be proven to demonstrate a link between the text and the violent acts







The Effects Model contributes to Moral Panics whereby: The media produce inactivity, make us into students who won’t pass their exams or ‘couch potatoes’ who make no effort to get a job The media produces violent ‘copycat’ behaviour or mindless shopping in response to advertisements



It is still unclear that there is any link between the consumption of violent media texts and violent imitative behaviour It is also clear the theory is flawed in that many people do watch violent texts and appear not to be influenced Therefore a new theory is necessary This is called the:



Uses and Gratifications Model















The Uses and Gratifications Model is the opposite of the Effects Model The audience is active The audience uses the text & is NOT used by it The audience uses the text for its own gratification or pleasure







Here, power lies with the audience NOT the producers This theory emphasises what audiences do with media texts – how and why they use them Far from being duped by the media , the audience is free to reject, use or play with media meanings as they see fit



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Audiences therefore use media texts to gratify needs for: Diversion Escapism Information Pleasure Comparing relationships and lifestyles with one’s own Sexual stimulation



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The audience is in control and consumption of the media helps people with issues such as: Learning Emotional satisfaction Relaxation Help with issues of personal identity Help with issues of social identity Help with issues of aggression and violence







Controversially the theory suggests the consumption of violent images can be helpful rather than harmful The theory suggests that audiences act out their violent impulses through the consumption of media violence The audience’s inclination towards violence is therefore sublimated, and they are less likely to commit violent acts





Given that the Effects model and the Uses and Gratifications have their problems and limitations a different approach to audiences was developed by the academic Stuart Hall at Birmingham University in the 1970s This considered how texts were encoded with meaning by producers and then decoded (understood) by audiences

 





The theory suggests that: When a producer constructs a text it is encoded with a meaning or message that the producer wishes to convey to the audience In some instances audiences will correctly decode the message or meaning and understand what the producer was trying to say In some instances the audience will either reject or fail to correctly understand the message



1. 2. 3.

Stuart Hall identified three types of audience readings (or decoding) of the text:

Dominant or preferred Negotiated Oppositional

1. 



Dominant Where the audience decodes the message as the producer wants them to do and broadly agrees with it E.g. Watching a political speech and agreeing with it

2. 



Negotiated Where the audience accepts, rejects or refines elements of the text in light of previously held views E.g. Neither agreeing or disagreeing with the political speech or being disinterested

3. 



Oppositional Where the dominant meaning is recognised but rejected for cultural, political or ideological reasons E.g. Total rejection of the political speech and active opposition

Audience Decodes

Meaning/Message

Dominant or preferred Producer Encodes Meaning

Negotiated

Oppositional

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