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Indirect Speech (Reported Speech)
vorbirea indirecta prezentare
Vorbirea indirecta presupune repetarea a ceea ce s-a scris sau s-a spus intr-o comunicare. Se considera transformarile de pe slide-urile urmatoare doar atunci cand verbul de raportat este la un timp trecut. Atunci cand verbul este la prezent, timpurile din propozitiile care se raporteaza raman neschimbate.
Transformari vb. directa vb. indirecta
Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Simple Past Continuous
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Continuous
Transformari vb. directa vb. indirecta
Will Would Shall Should Can Could May Might Must
=> => => => => => => => =>
Would Would Should Should Could Could Might Might Must
Transformari vb. directa
The day before/ the previous day
2 days/ 3 years (etc.)ago
2 months/ 3 years (etc.) before
Last month/ year etc.
A (the) month/ year (etc.) before; The previous month/ year
The next day/ the following day
Next year/summer etc.
The next year/summer etc.
Present Simple “I don’t want this book.”, he said (don’t want => (this =>
Past Simple He said he didn’t want that book didn’t want) that)
Present Continuous “She’s working hard for this presentation”, I told my manager. (is working => (this =>
Past Continuous I told my manager (that) she was working hard for that presentation was working) That)
Past Simple “Tom gave up his job yesterday”, my brother informed me. (gave up (yesterday
Present Perfect Simple “I have written a poem”, she exclaimed. (have written =>
Past Perfect Simple “I had forgotten my wallet”, he explained. (had forgotten => (my =>
Past Perfect Simple My brother informed me (that) Tom had given up his job the previous day.
had given up) the previous day)
Past Perfect Simple She exclaimed (that) she had written a poem.
Past Perfect Simple He explained he had forgotten his wallet.
had forgotten) his)
Past Continuous “I was reading the book at this time yesterday”,she said. (was reading => (this =>
Present Perfect Continuous “My mum has been calling you since lunch time”, he told me. (my => (has been calling => (you =>
Past Perfect Continuous “I had been repairing the car for one hour before your arrival”, he claimed. (I => (had been repairing => (your =>
Past Perfect Continuous She said she had been reading the newspaper at that time yesterday.
had been reading) that)
Past Perfect Continuous He told me his mum had been calling me since lunch time.
his) had been calling) me)
Past Perfect Continuous He claimed he had been repairing the car for one hour before my arrival.
he) had been repairing) my)
Will “She will do it”, I exclaimed.
Will “I will have finished by then”, he said.
Would “I would like a piece of cake”, he said.
Should “You should take care”, he told me.
Would I exclaimed that she would do it. Would He said he would have finished by then. Would He said (that) he would like a piece of cake. Should He told me (that) I should take care.
Can “My brother can swim”, she boasted.
May “You may go there”, I told my boy.
Could She boasted her brother could swim.
Might “It might rain tonight”, I said.
Must “You musn’t eat that”, he told her.
Might I told my boy he might go there. Might I said it might rain that night.
Must He told her she mustn’t eat that.
Intrebari – atentie la ordinea cuvintelor!!! (din interogativ trece in afirmativ)
“Why are you going there?”, he asked. “Where do you live?”, she asked. “Has she been there?”, my mum wondered. “Who are you?”, she asked him.
He asked why I was going there. She asked where I lived. My mum wondered if she had been there. She asked him who he was.
“Type these letters”, the boss told his secretary.
The boss told his secretary to type those letters.
“Don’t go there!”, I told my boy. “What a nice morning!”, she exclaimed. “Congratulations!”, he told his wife. “Taxi!”, he shouted. “Merry Christmas!”, she told us.
I told my boy not to go there. She exclaimed that the morning was nice.
He congratulated his wife.
He called a taxi. She wished us Merry Christmas.