Resistance Exercise Prescription

January 17, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Sports Medicine
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Resistance Exercise Prescription

Designing RE Prescriptions • Acute Variables: – – – – –

Choice of exercises Order of exercises Exercise intensity Exercise volume Inter-set rest intervals

• Chronic Variables: – Exercise frequency – Progression /Periodization (discussed later in course) 2

Choice of Exercises • Choose exercises that target primary muscle groups of sport (performance), and promote balance/symmetry (injury prevention) • Machines vs. free weight exercises – Machines are easier to learn and less intimidating – Free weights might give better “performance” results. Also less costly.

• Multi-joint vs. single-joint exercises – Recommendation: rely primarily on multi-joint

• Muscle actions – Recommendation: for optimal gains in muscle strength and size exercises must include eccentric muscle actions 3

Order of Exercises • Place most important exercises first – If the client needs to increase lower-body strength, then place lower-body exercises first in the workout

• ACSM Position Stand: – “Power” exercises performed before “strength” exercises • E.g., power clean before squat

– Large muscle group exercises performed before small muscle group exercises • E.g., squat before calf raise

– Multi-joint exercises before single-joint exercises • E.g., squat before knee extension 4

Exercise Volume and Intensity • Volume = Exercises x Sets x Repetitions • Intensity = Resistance (Load) • Methods of prescribing volume and intensity: 1. 2. 3. 4.

X repetitions at Y% 1-RM X-RM X repetitions at Y RPE X repetitions using a load based on analysis of training logs 5

Prescribing Volume and Intensity • The best strength coaches individualize training for athletes – Requires logging workout performances (preferably electronically) – Requires analyzing training logs

• For the purposes of this class, we will utilize the X-RM method 6

Exercise Volume & Intensity

Strength/Power Hypertrophy





Local Endurance



Number of Repetitions


Exercise Volume and Intensity • ACSM Position Stand (Volume): – Novice: 1-3 sets per exercise – Experienced: Multiple sets

• ACSM Position Stand (Intensity): – Novice: 60-70% of 1RM; or 8-12RM – Advanced: 80-100% of 1RM; or 1-6RM


Rest Intervals • If goal is strength/power, then rest ~2-3 min between sets – Strength/power gains will be attenuated if rest intervals are too short – For assistance exercises, 1-2 min should suffice

• If goal is muscular endurance, then rest ≤ 1 min between sets 9

Exercise Frequency • Frequency = # of sessions per week • ACSM Position Stand: – Novice: 2-3 days/week (appropriate for most people) – Intermediate: 3-4 days/week – Advanced: 4-7 days/week

• Remember: you get stronger between work-outs, not during – Importance of recovery 10

Periodization Volume



Pre-Season In-Season

Post-Season 11

Objectives • Overview the physiological basis of periodization • Define key terms related to periodization • Introduce basic concepts of periodized exercise prescriptions


Physiological Basis of Periodization • The body’s response to “stress” (exercise) is described by the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) and Supercompensation (SC) Theory • GAS and SC are similar methods used to describe the same process: responses and adaptation to stress 13

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)


Supercompensation (SC) Theory


Applying GAS/SC to S&C • A scientifically based exercise prescription can significantly improve performance in a relatively short period of time

• Consequences of a training program that is monotonous (doesn’t change over time) or utilizes insufficient recovery: – Plateau in performance (best case scenario) – Decrease in performance – Injury from overuse (worst case scenario) 16

Periodization Terminology • Macrocycle: Typically, a year-long training plan • Phases: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Preparatory phase (off-season) Transition phase (pre-season) Competition phase (in-season) Transition phase (post-season)

• Mesocycle: A training cycle that addresses specific training goal(s) (e.g., maximizing strength) and usually lasts ~2-8 weeks • Microcycle: Typically, one week of training 17

Periodization • In general, as the athlete progresses from the post-season to the in-season, the training priorities shift from: – Non-specific activities to Sport-specific activities – High-volume/low-intensity to Highintensity/low-volume





Post-Season 19

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