Revolutionary Ideas, Leaders, Movements and Events

January 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), Revolutionary War
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HTAV Student Lectures Sunday October 13th 2013 Lauren Perfect Haileybury [email protected]

The Exam – Section A American Revolution

Suggested Resources • • • • • • • • • Textbooks, reading compilations etc. Written notes, reading summaries etc. Lectures and presentations Podcasts, wikis, apps, social media sites Classmates and forums Your teacher and other teachers 

Section A, Qu 1 & 2 of the Exam The Task • • • • • •

2 extended questions Answer both 1 page per response 10 marks each response Total 20 marks Spend 30 minutes maximum

Section A, Qu 1 & 2 of the Exam The Content • Revolutionary Ideas, Leaders, Movements and Events • 1763 (End of French and Indian War) – 1776 (Declaration of Independence)

Concepts to Consider • • • • •

Mercantilism Acts of Trade and Navigation Salutary Neglect Self Government in Colonies French and Indian War (1757-63)

Key Legislation and responses… (Events)

The Proclamation Act (1763) • Aimed to avoid conflict with native Americans • Prevent settlement territory difficult to control or govern • Proclamation line ran through the Appalachian Mountains • All who had settled West of this line were ordered to return East

Colonial Response: The Proclamation Act (1763)

• Some colonists (particularly new settlers and land speculators) were angered • Desire to expand further into the West (the Ohio valley) • Colonists believed it was their right to expand following victory over the French • Despite anger, only temporary • Difficult to enforce Act, no government control or police on the frontier • Some colonists ignored the act and crossed the line

The Sugar Act (1764) • • • • •

Existed since 1733 Part of Acts of Trade and Navigation Renewed every 5 years Renewed in 1763, for 1 year only Reviewed and found to be inefficient and corrupt

The Sugar Act (1764) • Revenue Act (1764) – known as the Sugar Act • Reduced duty on foreign molasses to three pence a gallon (previously sixpence) • Sweeping powers to customs officials • Increased patrols to prevent smuggling • Revenue to defend colonies

Colonial Response: The Sugar Act (1764)

• Merchants and distillers were angered in New England • Official protests lodged • Otis and Adams – come to the forefront in protest, later discussed in ‘ideas’ section • No genuine unity in protest between colonies

The Stamp Act (1765) • First tabled in 1764 • Revenue raising act • Aimed to finance defence of the colonies and also to enforce mercantilist policies • All revenue raised would be returned to England • A tax on legal documents: titles, bills of sale, wills, contracts, diplomas, playing cards and dice • Stamp indicated the tax had been paid • Paid for in coin (specie)

Colonial Response: The Stamp Act (1765)

• Wide-reaching act, all classes of society impacted • Virtually no stamps sold • Otis, ‘The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved’ (July 1764) • Boycott of British goods in protest • ‘No Taxation without Representation’

Results: The Stamp Act (1765) • Trade slumped and British merchants pressured British parliament to repeal the act • Henry ‘Virginia Resolves’ (May 1765) • Sons of Liberty and the Stamp Act Riots (August 1765) • The Stamp Act Congress (October 1765) • Repealed March 1766

The Declaratory Act (1766) • Passed at the same time the Stamp Act was repealed • Stated that Britain had the right to pass laws relating to her colonies in ‘all cases whatsoever’

Colonial Response: The Declaratory Act (1766)

• Significance unrecognised by many • A ‘face-saving’ measure after the Stamp Act was repealed? • Many colonists ignored it • In reality it was a clear signal that the British government intended to take further steps to tax the colonies to recover the cost of colonial expenditure

The Townshend Acts (1767) • Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles Townshend exerted powers in William Pitt’s absence • Government accused by opposition as being ‘soft’ on colonials • A series of revenue-raising acts • Import taxes or duties placed on a variety of items: glass, lead, paints, paper and tea

Colonial Response: The Townshend Acts (1767)

• Again, the colonists were angered • Boycott of British goods again • Non-importation agreements strengthen protest • Active protest to British parliament • Confidence high after the repeal of the Stamp Act

Colonial Response: The Townshend Acts (1767)

• Circular Letter 1768 (Sam Adams) • Mob violence • Increased British Redcoat presence in Boston • Increased tension • Boston Massacre 5 March 1770

Results: The Townshend Acts (1767)

• Duties removed in 1770 • Severe slump in trade • British merchants pressured the parliament to remove it • Duty on tea remained • Peaceful period follows (three years)

The Tea Act (1773) • Aimed to force the colonies to buy tea from the East India Company • Fledging British company with a surplus of tea • Act would ensure a virtual monopoly on tea sales in American colonies for the company

Colonial Response: The Tea Act (1773)

• Colonists outraged • Didn’t feel parliament had the right to restrict trade • Boycott of British tea • Smuggling of foreign tea • Boston Tea Party December 1773 • Tea tipped overboard in symbolic act of protest (Boston Port)

Results: The Tea Act (1773) • Immediate impact in Britain • Colonists were forced to repay the East India Company for the cost of the tea and the duties owing • Strengthening of control over the colonies by British parliament (especially Massachusetts)

The Coercive Acts (1774) • • • • • • • •

British response to the Tea Party Four acts Tightened British control on the colonies Boston Port Act Massachusetts Government Act Administration of Justice Act Quartering Act Quebec Act – passed in conjunction, but not actually part of the Coercive Acts

The Coercive Acts (1774) • The port of Boston was closed • A military governor was appointed in Massachusetts, the Upper House was now to only comprise of members appointed by him • Trial of British for offences in Massachusetts could now be tried in England or another colony • Colonists were ordered to quarter (pay upkeep and potentially house) British troops

Colonial Response: The Coercive Acts (1774)

• Colonists labeled them the ‘Intolerable Acts’ • Active protests and petitions to the King • Virginian support leads to dissolution of House of Burgesses and meeting at Raleigh Tavern • Meeting called for a continental congress to discuss the crisis (Henry) • Massachusetts House of Representatives echo this call • The first unified meeting of the 13 colonies was destined to take place

The First Continental Congress (1774)

• • • • • •

Commenced September 1774 Philadelphia 45 representatives 12 colonies (Georgia not represented) Petitioned the King, pledging loyalty Number of resolves

The First Continental Congress (1774)

• Enforced boycotting all British imports and trade until the acts had been lifted • Henry, “I am not a Virginian but an American” • Suffolk Resolves adopted • Galloway Plan (Plan of Union) - rejected • End October 1774 • Resolved to meet again May 1775

British Response: The First Continental Congress (1774)

• King and British Parliament did not falter • Believed it was better to ‘nip rebellion in the bud’ in a short war rather than address issues later • British raised military ready to suppress the rebellion in colonial America

Second Continental Congress (1775)

• • • • •

Commenced May 1775 48 members Georgia represented Plan of Union not likely War had already broken out – Lexington and Concord (April 1775) • Washington attends in militia uniform

Second Continental Congress (1775)

• Adopt army made up of colonial militia • Washington appointed commander • Declaration of the ‘Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms’ • Justified why war was necessary • Olive Branch Petition to King – arrived after the King had already rejected conciliation with the colonies

During the Congress • Paine’s ‘Common Sense’ January 1776 • Challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy • Used plain language to appeal to the common people of the colonies • Change in ideological thought – openly asked for Independence • Push towards separation

Declaring Independence (1776) • • • •

Second Continental Congress Drafted by Jefferson Approved July 4th 1776 Declaration of Independence signed during the Congress confirming separation of Britain and America

Declaration of Independence (1776)

Key ideas: • All men had the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness • It was the duty of governments to protect these rights • Reflected the liberal Enlightenment ideas (discussed in ideas section)


George Washington • • • • • • •

The most prominent figure of the revolution French and Indian War Virginian landowner and planter Member of Virginian House of Burgesses Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army First President of United States of America Outspoken critic of England’s colonial policies in the 1760s

Thomas Jefferson • Member of the Virginian House of Burgesses • Author of the Virginian Constitution, Declaration of Independence • Many other important documents • A Summary View of the Rights of British America, 1774 • Not a prominent speaker or ‘active’ leader • Contribution is ideological and in penning key documents

Benjamin Franklin • • • •

The most famous American of his time Scientist Pennsylvania Assembly delegate Agent in England for the colonies – intercepted personal letters of Hutchinson and Oliver • Slow to support independence of the colonies, but a strong believer in unity • Suggested that the 13 colonies unite in 1754 – ‘Albany Plan’ – ‘Join or Die’

Thomas Paine • A prominent pamphleteer • Penned two of the most important revolutionary documents • Common Sense, January 1776 • Written using plain language, expressed why the colonies must become independent • The American Crisis, late 1776 (out of this AOS) • Strengthened morale following a series of defeats in late 1776

Samuel Adams • A prominent activist in Boston • Leader of the Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence (1772), Solemn League and Covenant (1774) • Organiser of the Boston Massacre (1770) and Tea Party (1773) • Prominent and inspiring speaker and author • ‘The Rights of the Colonists’ (1772) • ‘Grass-roots’ contribution - able to recruit, organise and communicate with common people

Patrick Henry • Questionable impact on the revolution, despite fame • Member of Virginian House of Burgesses • Biographer reconstructed two most famous ‘radical’ and ‘inflammatory’ speeches in the Virginia House of Burgesses • Caesar/Brutus speech - “If this be treason, make the most of it!” (1765) • “Give me liberty, or give me death” (1775)

Other Leaders • • • • • •

John Adams Paul Revere James Otis John Dickinson John Hancock Consider other prominent individuals


Sons of Liberty • • • • • •

Most famous movement Existed in almost every colony August 1765 Based in large cities such as Boston Created and spread propaganda Organised acts such as the Stamp Act Riots (1765), Boston Massacre (1770), Boston Tea Party (1773) • Harassment of the British and loyalist colonists

Committees of Correspondence • Existed temporarily since 1764 - dealt with current issue and then disbanded • 1772 established – Adams and Warren • Sometimes intertwined with the Sons of Liberty • Various and existed in many colonies • Purpose was to spread the word about events, ideas and British ‘tyranny’ • Also to protect the natural rights of colonists • Usually spread their message through letters and pamphlets but sometimes by meetings

Continental Congress • Is this a revolutionary movement? • It formed illegally and passed laws that led to revolutionary events • Nominated representatives from the 13 colonies • However, not democratically elected • Can this body be considered as a revolutionary government?

Continental Army • The military branch of the revolution • Not ideologically based • However, many sympathetic to the revolutionary cause • National unity and identity grew out of this group • For many, this was the first contact with men from other colonies


The Enlightenment • A period during the 1600s and 1700s • Questioning of the traditional world order • Science, medicine, philosophy, politics and art also questioned • Much revolutionary thought stemmed from this period

Natural Rights • ‘Natural rights of man’ • John Locke • It was suggested that the purpose of government was to serve the people, rather than vice versa • Also suggested that the role of governments was to protect natural rights, not control or limit them • Otis developed this idea into his theory of Natural Law

Popular Sovereignty • Challenges divine right • The right of governments to rule came from the people, not from the birthright of a monarch • Widely expressed through the idea of ‘taxation without representation’ – the first key grievance of the revolutionaries

Actual and Virtual Representation • Actual representation - each person in an electorate is directly represented in the assembly by an elected figure

In opposition • Virtual representation - parliamentarians represented the best interests of constituents, whether they had directly elected them or not

Nationalism • Developing notion of nationalism – a separation from being ‘English’ • Lived thousands of miles away – different geography, people, climate, values etc. • ‘New World’ vs ‘Old World’ of Europe

Republicanism and Constitutionalism

• Republicanism – a system of government without a monarch (links to Roman Empire) • Constitutionalism – a written framework for government • Both major features of the new society – this is central to AOS 2

2012 VCAA Exam Question One • Using three or four points, explain how the groups known as the Sons of Liberty contributed to the increased development of the American Revolution between 1765 and 1776. Provide evidence to support your answer.

2012 VCAA Examiners Report Poor answers: • Simply listed key members of the group (Adams and Hancock) • Simply listed key events the group was involved in (Boston Massacre and Tea Party)

2012 VCAA Examiners Report Good answers: • Identified the origins of the group (Loyal Nine) • Identified the reasons for the establishment of the group (response to Stamp Act) • Identified key acts of disobedience • Explained the desire of the group to alter British policy

2012 VCAA Exam Question Two • Using three or four points, explain how the ideas eventually contained in the Declaration of Independence contributed to a revolutionary situation between 1763 and 1776. Provide evidence to support your answer.

2012 VCAA Examiners Report Poor Answers: • Did not focus enough on the whole period of study (1763-1776) and how ideas eventually contained in the Declaration of Independence were prevalent prior to 1776 • Confused the Declaration of Independence with the Constitution • Generalised statements about ‘motherhood’

2012 VCAA Examiners Report Good Answers: • Covered the period 1763-1776 • Explored the notion of revolutionary leaders crystallising guiding principles and link them to key events before 1776 (e.g. ‘right to property’ linked to ‘no taxation without representation’ and ‘righto to life’ linked to British troops threatening this e.g. Boston Massacre)

General Advice for Section A, Questions 1 & 2 • Learn your ‘facts’ – study techniques (cue cards, timelines etc.) • Ensure you are clear about the outcomes of particular actions or events – study techniques (flow charts etc.) • Respond to all parts of the question– highlight the key terms, plan your response • Structure your response in a logical sequence • Signpost your answer to ensure clear points – use ‘firstly’, ‘secondly’ and ‘thirdly’, or language such as ‘furthermore’ to link points • Refer to the key terms in the question throughout your response, not only at the end (highlight these terms)

General Advice for Section A, Questions 1 & 2 • Demonstrate a range of knowledge • Use specific historical terms and include policies, events, dates, places and names • Establish links between your points, don’t simply ‘list’ information or provide a narrative • Always explain the contribution to the revolution or revolutionary situation – use these phrases throughout • Take your response further – not only how the event, idea, leader or movement caused the revolution, but ALSO how the topic combined with a number of other events or circumstances to create a ‘revolutionary situation’

General Advice for Section A, Questions 1 & 2 • Do not use historians’ views at the expense of factual evidence • Be careful to confine your discussion to the period set for the area of study, which is stated on the examination paper • Information can be best presented in chronological order to demonstrate the development of the revolution • Do not use dot point format • Try to stick to the allocated space and time

General Advice for Section A, Questions 1 & 2 Possible Structure: • U nity • M ovements • I deas • L eaders • E vents • R elationship change

Student Sample Response • Sample – high level response

Section A, Qu 3 of the Exam The Task • Write on the same revolution as Qu 1 & 2 • Document, commentary, visual representation or interpretation • 4 scaffolded questions • 2 comprehension style questions • 1 on context – “using your knowledge” • 1 on “usefulness” or “reliability” • Total 20 marks • Spend 30 minutes maximum

Section A, Qu 3 of the Exam The Content • Creating a New Society • July 1776 (Declaration of Independence) – 1789 (Inauguration of George Washington)

Series of Crises and Responses

After the Declaration of Independence • The 13 colonies became sovereign/independent states • Unification? • Was this a revolutionary aim? • The states were not ready to relinquish autonomy • On the whole, they pursued individual interests

Political Structure of the States • • • • •

Written constitutions Bills of Rights State political structures Delegates were appointed by election Some states retained property qualifications for voting, this differed from state to state

Unity? • States were essentially sovereign nations • Very little altered in terms of structure, however, now without British rule • Most political power lay with the states rather than the national Congress

Articles of Confederation • Written 1777 • Ratified 1781 • ‘Loose union’

Crises under the Articles The Confederation Congress was faced with several problems: • International relations • Trade • Economic management • Defence • Establishing a bureaucracy

Reasons for Crises • Federal Congress was weak under Articles • State legislatures held most power • Congress had no coercive power or legal authority over states • Congress lacked the power to tax or manage trade • While Congress could request money from states, they were not obligated to supply it • Congress consisted of a legislative branch of government only and had no judicial or executive power

Reasons for Crises • States possessed the power to act as they pleased, without Congress approval • Foreign powers maintained a presence in the states, including Britain • Britain did not honour the Treaty of Paris (1783)

Limitations of Congress • Confederation Congress - formed by the Articles of Confederation • Severely restricted • Faced a variety of problems in the 1780s • Compounded by national debt and loss of trade with Britain that followed the revolutionary war

Economic Crisis • Congress unable to regulate trade – states free to trade with foreign powers • Also unable to control trade between states • Difficult to establish clear markets for American exports • Unable to levy taxes • Enormous war debt • Not able to issue paper money • Not able to prevent the states from printing their own

Economic Crisis • Economic crisis ensued • New export markets required • ‘Safe’ and established trading partner Britain and her empire gone • Unable to recoup severe war debt • States issued large amounts of paper money – e.g. Rhode Island • Widespread hyperinflation • Tension mounts between the states

Economic  Social Crisis • Following revolutionary war returned soldiers face severe economic problems • Particularly farmers • Suffered high levels of debt and state taxation • Compounded by low prices for produce

Economic  Social Crisis • Urban merchants and creditors also under financial pressure recall debts • Farmers and working-class were generally unable to meet repayments • Debtors’ courts established • Role of courts – to ensure payment of debts or impose foreclosure on mortgages or even imprison those in debt

Shays’ Rebellion • Massachusetts • August 1786 – June 1787 • Group of disgruntled farmers (Shaysites or Regulators) • Led by former Continental Army officer, Daniel Shays • Marched on Springfield and force the debtors’ court to adjourn

Shays’ Rebellion • It was argued the revolution had not improved the lives of the people • They had fought for key revolutionary ideals that had not been achieved • Some state assemblies cancelled the debts of farmers and workers • Sympathetic to the farmers? OR • Worried about further rebellion?

Response: Shays’ Rebellion • Congress and the Articles of Confederation were unable to protect both groups involved • Debtors – suffered poor trade, low prices, high debt and high taxation • Creditors – rights were not protected • A Constitutional Convention was needed - elite members of society called • Philadelphia (1787) • Purpose - revise the Articles of Confederation and improve the system of government

Constitutional Convention • Philadelphia (1787) • Completely scrapped the Articles of Confederation – revising impossible • New governmental framework to be built on a federal system • Result – the Constitution

The Constitution • National government significantly strengthened • Autonomy and powers of 13 states greatly reduced • Congress divided into two houses – House of Representatives and the Senate • Power to pass laws, tax, raise armies and navies, control trade and commerce

The Constitution • Executive branch (presidency) - to run the government on a day-to-day basis • Legislative branch – law makers • Judicial branch (courts) – interpret laws and make legal rulings • ‘Checks and balances’ • Designed to prevent tyranny

Ratifying the Constitution • Met with significant public debate • Anti-Federalists - feared the return to a strong central government and the potential for tyranny (Jefferson and Henry) • Federalists - supported the new system (Madison and Hamilton) • Became law following ratification by 9 of the 13 states

Ratifying the Constitution • • • • •

Ratification – a ‘crisis’? The process had the potential to fail Debate and propaganda ensued Madison’s Federalist Paper – in support Support of George Washington as a strong figurehead convinced many

Ratifying the Constitution • Passed in 1788 • Promise that a Bill of Rights (a series of ten amendments) would be added after ratification • Appeasement for the anti-federalists? • Many believed the protection of natural rights was not inherent in the Constitution • Bill of Rights – to protect the natural rights of individuals and avoid tyranny

Bill of Rights • 1789 • Guaranteed freedoms of speech, religion, the press, of association and assembly • Ensured a due legal process

Inauguration of Washington • • • • •

George Washington Appointed the first president Inaugurated on 30 April 1789 Elected convincingly Relieved many who feared the president as a virtual monarch

2012 VCAA Exam • Written, secondary source – • Morton Borden, Parties and Politics in the Early Republic, 1789–1815, Harland Davidson & Wiley, New Jersey, 1967, pp. 9–11 • Debates concerning the Constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists • See 2012 VCAA paper for extract

2012 VCAA Exam Question Three a. Identify two achievements of the Constitution. b. Identify two national problems.

2012 VCAA Exam c. By quoting from the extract and using your own knowledge, explain the major differences between the Federalists and Republicans (or anti-Federalists) in 1787. d. Evaluate to what extent this extract is useful in understanding the debates over the Constitution in the new society. In your response, quote parts of the extract and refer to different views of the Constitution.

2012 VCAA Examiners Report Poor Answers: • Did not read question d carefully – did not focus on the debates surrounding the Constitution in the new society, rather focussed on historians views too much

2012 VCAA Examiners Report Good Answers: • Used the extract effectively • Identified key differences between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist debate – focussing on the amount of federal power to be afforded • Recognised the extract explored the key aspects of debate and the visions of the revolutionaries to create a new strong and united federal government • Discussed the debates surrounding the Constitution in the new society • Explored historiography discussing the motivations of the Founding Fathers

General Advice for Section A, Question 3 Questions 3a & b • Ensure you read the comprehension questions carefully and answer the question that is being asked • Many ‘easy’ marks are lost through misunderstanding or incorrectly focused responses

General Advice for Section A, Question 3 Question 3c • Read carefully to ensure a correctly focussed response – highlight key terms • Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of the topic • Avoid a narrative of events, you need to contextualise the document or graphic • Use reading time to ensure you are clear on the viewpoint of the document or graphic – use the captions and unpack the symbols • Clearly link your answer to the document or graphic – quote, identify features, interpret symbols, use linking phrases (“as stated in the extract” or “as seen in the visual”) • Question ‘c’ does not require historiography

General Advice for Section A, Question 3 Question 3d • Avoid simply listing your knowledge or comparing historians • Analyse the view of the document (perhaps start with this) and make specific reference to it and the author – use linking phrases • Address the ‘strengths and limitations’ of the document as evidence • Also refer to the strengths and weaknesses of the event itself • Incorporate outside factual knowledge relevant to the document and question, do not simply reply on content from the document • Ensure your historiography is relevant to the document and question – agree or disagree? (school is not essential) • Do not simply list schools of thought, label and compare and contrast historians views • Use of ‘bias’ and clichés • Structure your ideas clearly and logically

Student Sample Response • Sample – high level response

Please feel free to contact me should you have any questions or comments: Lauren Perfect Haileybury [email protected] Best of luck for the exam on November 8th 2013!

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