Revolutions

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, War And Revolution (1914-1938), Russian Revolution
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HTAV October 2011

EXAM SECTION A

Revolutions Richard Malone

Crane Brinton – “Anatomy of Revolution” (1938) Radical Stage

Moderate Stage

Old Regime

Recovery Stage

Interpreting Revolutions

Or is a revolution a brilliant act of health?

General tips to writing good history • Be specific. Avoid generalisations such as ‘everyone lost confidence in the Tsar.’ • Provide precise evidence to support your ideas. • Know dates of events so that you can understand the context of events, and discuss events before and after specific events in the questions. Make timelines. Learn dates.

• Practice whole exam papers Practice using Reading Time well Practice timing of each section and exam as a whole Remember not to answer every question in the paper – one revolution per section Decide which revolution to do in each section

Ways to organise your notes • Area of Study

Area of Study 1 1905-1917

Content – main events • 1905 Revolution – • World War One – • February Revolution –

• Dual Government – • October Revolution –

Content – main leaders • • • • •

Tsar Nicholas II Witte & Stolyin Alexandra & Rasputin Kerensky Lenin

• Trotsky

Content – main ideas • C • R • A • P

Content – main themes • Economic crisis – small landholdings, poor conditions, failed harvests meant business struggle & hardship in towns. Made worse by food and fuel shortages, high inflation & unemployment of WW1

• Political tension – long term economic & social struggles lessened traditional supporters of tsarism. Plus growth in industrial working class created an increased attraction of Marxism. Tsar did not recognise his isolation.

• Unwillingness to reform – Tsar perceived any political reform to be an attack on precious autocratic rule

• Rising & unmet expectations – psychological damage of conditions from Witte’s reforms, failure of Dumas and demoralisation of war

Sir G Buchanan “The Emperor Nicholas II is one of the most pathetic figures in history. He loved his country. He had its welfare and greatness at heart. Yet it was he who was to cause the catastrophe which has brought it to utter ruin and misery.” My Mission to Russia and Other Diplomatic memories (1923)

Exam Tips for each Section Tips taken from  Assessors Report at www.vcaa.vic.edu.au (for 2010 exam)

 VCE Exam Guide in The Age, 2011.

Section A Part 1 Qu 1 and 2 “Paragraph Answers” • Average in 2010 exam was 5/10 for Question 1 and 4.1/10 for Question 2 • Learn facts about each event in Area of Study 1 • Show a range of knowledge – 3-4 different points • Only use knowledge from the time frame in the question • Link knowledge to the contribution to a ‘revolutionary situation’ or the ‘development of the revolution’.

• Learn about the outcome or significance of each event – crucial to be able to make connections between events and to show the sequence of events • Use linking phrases like ‘furthermore’ • Limit your response to the lines provided. • Write answer in a clear logical order – use signposting such as firstly, secondly, thirdly.

Direct Extract from VCAA Assessors’ Report “The best answers showed an excellent range of knowledge and responded well to the cue ‘how did’. They showed a clear understanding of the contribution of events to the revolutionary situation and explained the steps in a logical sequence. Excellent responses used correct and specific historical terms and included dates, places and names.”

The following is a high-level response to Question 1 on Russia. • Question 2 Using three or four points, explain how • Using three or four points, explain how defeat in the Russo–Japanese War Lenin’s ‘April Theses’ contributed to theof 1904 contributed to a revolutionary development of the October situation by 1905. • Revolution of 1917. Provide evidence to support your answer. • Provide evidence to support your answer.

• The unexpected defeat of Russia in the Russo–Japanese War was highly significant in contributing to a revolutionary situation by1905. Firstly, soldiers who were angered by the harsh conditions they had endured during the war and their humiliating defeat, began to revolt in certain instances like the mutiny of the Battleship Potemkin in 1905. This allowed the Tsar to understand the seriousness of the possible threat to his power. What is more, this same dissatisfaction with the defeat and disillusionment with the Tsar was re-echoed amongst urban population as people were shocked that Tsarist Russia had succumbed so easily to an Asian nation which had been held in contempt as inherently inferior. The fact that nearly half the Russian fleet had been sunk in the Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 1905) shocked the Russian people and led them to question the supposed infallibility and omnipotence of their aristocratic leader, Nicholas II. Furthermore, the cost of engagement in the war had compounded the already serious economic problems, causing a decline in living standards and consequently simmering dissatisfaction that threatened to overboil. eg. In Russian cities there were an average 16 people to an apartment and factory workers endured 60 hour working weeks. Thus the ‘spark’ of the January Bloody Sunday massacre caused the flames of revolution to arise. Finally the fact that angry sailors and soldiers were returning to St. Petersburg in October 1905 as a massive general strike was raging, forced the Tsar to take action because he knew they could otherwise add to the growing unrest and lead to a full blown revolution. Thus the Tsar introduced the October Manifesto which promised reform in October 17 1905.

• The unexpected defeat of Russia in the Russo–Japanese War was highly significant in contributing to a revolutionary situation by1905. Firstly, soldiers who were angered by the harsh conditions they had endured during the war and their humiliating defeat, began to revolt in certain instances like the mutiny of the Battleship Potemkin in 1905. This allowed the Tsar to understand the seriousness of the possible threat to his power. What is more, this same dissatisfaction with the defeat and disillusionment with the Tsar was re-echoed amongst urban population as people were shocked that Tsarist Russia had succumbed so easily to an Asian nation which had been held in contempt as inherently inferior. The fact that nearly half the Russian fleet had been sunk in the Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 1905) shocked the Russian people and led them to question the supposed infallibility and omnipotence of their aristocratic leader, Nicholas II. Furthermore, the cost of engagement in the war had compounded the already serious economic problems, causing a decline in living standards and consequently simmering dissatisfaction that threatened to overboil. eg. In Russian cities there were an average 16 people to an apartment and factory workers endured 60 hour working weeks. Thus the ‘spark’ of the January Bloody Sunday massacre caused the flames of revolution to arise. Finally the fact that angry sailors and soldiers were returning to St. Petersburg in October 1905 as a massive general strike was raging, forced the Tsar to take action because he knew they could otherwise add to the growing unrest and lead to a full blown revolution. Thus the Tsar introduced the October Manifesto which promised reform in October 17 1905.

• The unexpected defeat of Russia in the Russo–Japanese War was highly significant in contributing to a revolutionary situation by1905. Firstly, soldiers who were angered by the harsh conditions they had endured during the war and their humiliating defeat, began to revolt in certain instances like the mutiny of the Battleship Potemkin in 1905. This allowed the Tsar to understand the seriousness of the possible threat to his power. What is more, this same dissatisfaction with the defeat and disillusionment with the Tsar was re-echoed amongst urban population as people were shocked that Tsarist Russia had succumbed so easily to an Asian nation which had been held in contempt as inherently inferior. The fact that nearly half the Russian fleet had been sunk in the Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 1905) shocked the Russian people and led them to question the supposed infallibility and omnipotence of their aristocratic leader, Nicholas II. Furthermore, the cost of engagement in the war had compounded the already serious economic problems, causing a decline in living standards and consequently simmering dissatisfaction that threatened to overboil. eg. In Russian cities there were an average 16 people to an apartment and factory workers endured 60 hour working weeks. Thus the ‘spark’ of the January Bloody Sunday massacre caused the flames of revolution to arise. Finally the fact that angry sailors and soldiers were returning to St. Petersburg in October 1905 as a massive general strike was raging, forced the Tsar to take action because he knew they could otherwise add to the growing unrest and lead to a full blown revolution. Thus the Tsar introduced the October Manifesto which promised reform in October 17 1905.

• The unexpected defeat of Russia in the Russo–Japanese War was highly significant in contributing to a revolutionary situation by1905. Firstly, soldiers who were angered by the harsh conditions they had endured during the war and their humiliating defeat, began to revolt in certain instances like the mutiny of the Battleship Potemkin in 1905. This allowed the Tsar to understand the seriousness of the possible threat to his power. What is more, this same dissatisfaction with the defeat and disillusionment with the Tsar was re-echoed amongst urban population as people were shocked that Tsarist Russia had succumbed so easily to an Asian nation which had been held in contempt as inherently inferior. The fact that nearly half the Russian fleet had been sunk in the Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 1905) shocked the Russian people and led them to question the supposed infallibility and omnipotence of their aristocratic leader, Nicholas II. Furthermore, the cost of engagement in the war had compounded the already serious economic problems, causing a decline in living standards and consequently simmering dissatisfaction that threatened to overboil. eg. In Russian cities there were an average 16 people to an apartment and factory workers endured 60 hour working weeks. Thus the ‘spark’ of the January Bloody Sunday massacre caused the flames of revolution to arise. Finally the fact that angry sailors and soldiers were returning to St. Petersburg in October 1905 as a massive general strike was raging, forced the Tsar to take action because he knew they could otherwise add to the growing unrest and lead to a full blown revolution. Thus the Tsar introduced the October Manifesto which promised reform in October 17 1905.

• The unexpected defeat of Russia in the Russo–Japanese War was highly significant in contributing to a revolutionary situation by1905. Firstly, soldiers who were angered by the harsh conditions they had endured during the war and their humiliating defeat, began to revolt in certain instances like the mutiny of the Battleship Potemkin in 1905. This allowed the Tsar to understand the seriousness of the possible threat to his power. What is more, this same dissatisfaction with the defeat and disillusionment with the Tsar was re-echoed amongst urban population as people were shocked that Tsarist Russia had succumbed so easily to an Asian nation which had been held in contempt as inherently inferior. The fact that nearly half the Russian fleet had been sunk in the Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 1905) shocked the Russian people and led them to question the supposed infallibility and omnipotence of their aristocratic leader, Nicholas II. Furthermore, the cost of engagement in the war had compounded the already serious economic problems, causing a decline in living standards and consequently simmering dissatisfaction that threatened to overboil. eg. In Russian cities there were an average 16 people to an apartment and factory workers endured 60 hour working weeks. Thus the ‘spark’ of the January Bloody Sunday massacre caused the flames of revolution to arise. Finally the fact that angry sailors and soldiers were returning to St. Petersburg in October 1905 as a massive general strike was raging, forced the Tsar to take action because he knew they could otherwise add to the growing unrest and lead to a full blown revolution. Thus the Tsar introduced the October Manifesto which promised reform in October 17 1905.

How do I know if I’ve written a good answer?      

Area of Study 2 1917-1924

Content – main events • • • • • • • • • • •

Land Decree Social Reforms Dismissal of Constituent Assembly Treaty of Brest Litovsk Murder of Royal Family Civil War – Reds vs Whites vs Greens International War War Communism Kronstadt Revolt New Economic Policy Lenin’s Death

Section A Part 2 Qu 3 “Visual or document analysis” • Average mark in 2010 exam was 1.9 for question 3 a) and 1.8 for 3 b). 86% of students wrote a response that received full marks • Average mark in 2010 exam was 2.6/5 for 3 c). 15% of students wrote a HIGH response ie 5-6 out of 6. • Average mark in 2010 exam was 4.3/10 for 3d). 15% of students wrote a HIGH response ie 8-10 out of 10. • Analysis of these statistics is to therefore focus on improving your writing of 3d), and 3c), responses as you have the greatest opportunity to gaining more marks.

Question 3c • Refer directly to parts of the graphic or document • For example, directly mention specific features or elements of the graphic. • For example, quote directly from the document. • use different information in 3c and 3d • must quote from the extract • do not use historians • explain events in the context of the document or graphic.

The following is a high-level response to Question 3c on Russia. c. Using your own knowledge and the extract, explain the consequences of Lenin’s introduction of the New Economic Policy from 1921–24.

• Lenin’s reference to the NEP being intended to ‘strengthen the foundations of socialism’ speaks to the intended effect of the NEP to consolidate the Communist Party’s rule. The NEP did indeed lead to a decline in opposition to the Bolsheviks in Russia’s urban population and peasants benefitted as electricity production multiplied by 3 times between 1921 and 1924 and the average workers wage increased by 150%. However, an unfavourable result was the advent of criticism in the Bolshevik Party itself as members like Kamanev labelled the NEP the ‘New Exploitation of the Proletariat’. Also Lenin’s idea that there would be a revival of the ‘petty bourgeoisie’ was realised as Nepmen, people who bought and sold manufactured goods at a profit came to be rich. However, Lenin’s idea that ‘manufactured goods’ would become easily available was not instantly realised as the Scissors Crisis 1923 resulted from the NEP. As the trade of grain was made free but industry still kept under state control, manufactured goods came to be 3 times as expensive as agricultural products and were incredibly difficult to obtain.

• Lenin’s reference to the NEP being intended to ‘strengthen the foundations of socialism’ speaks to the intended effect of the NEP to consolidate the Communist Party’s rule. The NEP did indeed lead to a decline in opposition to the Bolsheviks in Russia’s urban population and peasants benefitted as electricity production multiplied by 3 times between 1921 and 1924 and the average workers wage increased by 150%. However, an unfavourable result was the advent of criticism in the Bolshevik Party itself as members like Kamanev labelled the NEP the ‘New Exploitation of the Proletariat’. Also Lenin’s idea that there would be a revival of the ‘petty bourgeoisie’ was realised as Nepmen, people who bought and sold manufactured goods at a profit came to be rich. However, Lenin’s idea that ‘manufactured goods’ would become easily available was not instantly realised as the Scissors Crisis 1923 resulted from the NEP. As the trade of grain was made free but industry still kept under state control, manufactured goods came to be 3 times as expensive as agricultural products and were incredibly difficult to obtain.

Question 3d • .

Historical Perspectives Marxist

Western

Revisionist

Richard Pipes “The tragic and sordid history of the Russian Revolution… teaches us that political authority must never be employed for ideological ends. It is best to let people be.” Communism: a brief history (2001) page 512

How do I know if I’ve written a good 3d answer?  I summarised the perspective of the document or graphic in my 1st sentence  I commented on the strengths of this perspective  I included historians and evidence that agreed with the perspective of the document/graphic  I commented on the problems of this perspective  I included historians and evidence that disagreed with the perspective of the document/graphic  I focused directly on what the question was asking

Practice Perspective 1

Practice Perspective 2

Practice Perspective 3

Practice Perspective 4

Title “Always Ready”

Practice Perspective 5 Dominic Lieven “In no circumstances would 20th century Russian History have been pleasant or bloodless. But Lenin made it far worse than it needed to be. In 1917 he combine fanaticism, ruthlessness and absolute self-confidence with a terrifying naivety about government, economics and Russian society…To impose such immense sacrifices in the name of so naïve and flawed a vision makes Lenin one of the greatest criminals of the 20th Century.” (2000)

Practice Perspective 6 Orlando Figes “If there was one lesson to be drawn from the Russian Revolution it was that the people had failed to emancipate themselves. They had failed to become their own political masters, to free themselves from emperors and become citizens.”

Practice Perspective 7 Christopher Hill • Lenin represented the oppressed • Lenin represented the pure qualities of communism • Lenin was a true Russian patriot • “The revolutionary process abolished a regime of despair and created a new world of hope.”

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