Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have Mixed Success

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Colonial History (1600-1775)
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Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have Mixed Success

The English Plan Colonies     

Colonies would provide a market for English exports Source or raw material Increase trade Build up gold supply Mercantilism – state controls trade and attempts to transfer wealth from colonies to parent country Reasons for going to America  Lack of economic opportunity in England  Gold mines 

Religious persecution

Financing a Colony 

Joint-Stock Company  Backed by investors – people put money in to earn profits  Investor got shares  Split any profits  Divided any losses Virginia Company of London, Virginia Company of Plymouth, (later Massachusetts Bay Company and Dutch West Indies Company) Charter  Written contract  Issued by government  Gave the holder right to establish colony

Who – Who were among the settlers at Sagadahoc? 

Who was their leader? 

George Popham

What happened to the colonists at Roanoke? 


Cut off from food supply by Native Americans – sent back to England

What happened to the colony at Sagadahoc? 

Arguments, harsh winter, fights with Native Americans, food shortages, forced to return to England

What was the House of Burgesses? 

What was Bacon’s Rebellion? 

Marched into Jamestown, took control of House of Burgesses and burned Jamestown to the ground.

When was Jamestown settled? 

Elected representatives that would meet once a year – first representative assembly in American Colonies


When did the starving time end? 

Starving time ended in 1610

Why did the settlers go to Jamestown? 

Why didn’t the settlers get along with their neighbors? 

Because they wanted more and more of their land

Why did Jamestown nearly fail? 

Make money, find gold, new life, greater opportunities

Disease, unwilling to work, more interested in gold than work

Why did Bacon’s rebellion occur?    

Opposed William Berkeley High taxes Favoritism toward large plantation owners Bacon wanted war with Native Americans to seize land for tobacco

Where was Roanoke? 

Where was Sagadahoc? 

Maine – mouth of Kennebec River

Where was Jamestown? 

Island off of North Carolina

In Virginia, on a small peninsula on James River

How was Jamestown saved from failure? 

John Smith took over and forced colonists to work – tobacco provided money to build the colony.

Sect. 2 – New England Colonies

Causes of Conflict

Result of Conflict

King James vs. Pilgrims

Pilgrims a separatist group. King attacked them for rejecting England’s Official church.

Fled to Holland first. Approached Virginia Comp. To arrange to settle in America

Puritans vs. Church of England

Religious beliefs Wanted church of England to “purify” its practices

Bad treatment by King. Left England to form colonies in America .Great Migration

Causes of Conflict

Result of Conflict

Puritan leaders vs. Roger Williams

Opposed forced attendance at church. Opposed taking Native lands by force

Left and started Rhode Island

Puritan leaders vs. Anne Hutchinson

Believed person Banished and fled could worship to Rhode Island God without help of church, minister or Bible

Quakers vs. Massachusetts Commonwealth

Causes of Conflict

Result of Conflict

Believed that each person could know God directly through an inner light – no minister or bible needed. Treat Native Americans fairly

Called Quakers. Whipped, imprisoned or hung. .Left for Rhode Island

King Philip’s War

Causes of Conflict Americans – land belonged to person or group. Native Americans – land belonged to everyone. Religion. Increased population of Europeans

Result of Conflict Colonial victory. Destruction of 12 colonial villages600 military 3000 Native Americans killed. King Philip killed500 Native Americans enslaved

Salem Witchcraft Trials

Causes of Conflict Younger generations – different religious view than that of parents. False accusations. Witch hunts

Result of Conflict Arrests, trials and execution for witchcraft.

What was the Mayflower Compact? 

Vowed to obey laws agreed upon for the good of the colony Helped establish the idea of selfgovernment and majority rule


How did Squanto and Samoset help the Pilgrims? Interpreter between Pilgrims and Chief Massasoit  Negotiated a peace treaty  Showed them how to plant, hunt and fish 

Describe the First Thanksgiving. Three day feast  Represented the peace that existed at the time between Native Americans and Pilgrims 

What was the New England Way? 

Congregation – group of people who belonged to the same church Set up own town  Meeting house  Most important building  Gathered for town meetings  A form of self government  Made laws and other decisions for the community  Only male church members could vote or hold office

 

By law all had to attend church services Sermon provided instruction in New England Way  Emphasized duty, godliness, hard work and honesty  Dancing and playing games would lead to laziness  God requires them to work long and hard at their vocation Work ethic contributed to rapid growth and success of New England Colonies Depended on Education – laws required that all children be able to read

Who founded Connecticut? 

Thomas Hooker

What is the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?  A constitution  Extended voting rights to non-church members  Limited the power of the governor  Expanded the idea of representative government

Describe the Beginning of New Hampshire? Village near Portsmouth  John Wheelwright – town of Exeter  Exeter Compact – based on Mayflower Compact 


What attracted Catholics, Quakers and Jews to these colonies? 

Religious freedom

What economic activities were important in the Middle Colonies? Hudson and Delaware river supported shipping and commerce  River valleys had rich soil and mild winters  Conditions favorable for farming and raising livestock 

What area did New Netherland include? 

Included Hudson river Valley, Long Island, land along Delaware river

Explain the Patroon system. How did help attract settlers to New Netherland? 

Patroon system  Person brought 50 settlers  Reward – patron received large land grant  Special privileges in hunting, fishing and fur trading on land  Jews, Africans as slaves, indentured servants and Puritans

How did the English acquire New Netherland? 

Peter Stuyvesant – governor  Attacked New Sweden  New Sweden surrendered

Explain how the Duke of York became owners of New York? King Charles II wanted Duke to drive Dutch out of Netherland  Dutch a threat to England’s trade  Threat because of expanding settlements and location  When Duke’s ships appeared off New Amsterdam the colony surrendered  Became a proprietary colony of New York  Duke was owner 

How did the province of New Jersey come about? 

Duke of York gave province of New Jersey to George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley

How did the owners of the New Jersey colony attract settlers? Promised freedom of religion  Large grants of land  Representative assembly 

How did Wm. Penn receive the land called Pennsylvania? Joined the Quakers  Attacked for his beliefs  King Charles gave him large piece of land in America in partial payment to his family  Called Pennsylvania – Means “Penns Woods”  Created a colony for Quakers 

How did Penn’s religious beliefs affect the way he governed Pennsylvania? Quakers  All people should live in peace and harmony  Welcomed different religions and ethnic groups  Wanted Native Americans to be treated fairly  Policies made Pennsylvania one of the wealthiest of American Colonies 

How did Delaware come about? 

Granted three lower counties of Delaware their own Assembly – became Delaware

What attracted settlers to the Southern Colonies?

Maryland, Carolinas and Georgia  Soil and climate suitable for crops such as tobacco, rice and indigo 

Why did Lord Baltimore establish Maryland? For Roman Catholics fleeing persecution in England  Promised religious freedom to attract more settlers  Passed Toleration Act

What was Maryland’s economy based on? 

Economy based on tobacco  Used up the land  Had to clear new land every 3-4 years  Laborers came as servants or slaves  Few women as settlers

Who were the first settlers to Carolina and how did they live? Early settlers build Charles Town – Charleston  Cut timber, raised cattle and traded with Native Americans  Refuge for Huguenots (French Protestants) seeking religious freedom 

What changed the economy of Carolina and how did this lead to the beginning of slavery? Needed laborers to grow rice and indigo  Encouraged to used enslaved Africans 

Sold Native Americans into slavery  Battle between settlers and Native Americans over Indian slaves and taking of land 

In what way did Carolina change after it became a royal colony? Battle between settlers and Native Americans over Indian slaves and taking of land  No help from owners so they overthrew the rule  Became Royal Colony – governor appointed by King  Divided into North and South Carolina 

Why did James Oglethorpe found Georgia? 

Refuge for debtors

How did the English government intent to use the Georgia colony? English governor wanted a military outpost against Spanish Florida and French Louisiana  Spanish tried to force English out but unsuccessful 

Who settled in Georgia? English, German, Swiss and Scottish  All religions welcome 

Why did Oglethorpe lose control and what happened to the colony? Oglethorpe set strict rules that upset colonists  King made a royal colony 

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