Sectionalism & National Growth

May 7, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Sectionalism & National Growth Industrialization

of the Northeast

Factory

system expanded quickly after Embargo Act and War of 1812 cut off competition from England. Factors assisting expansion: Water

power from streams and rivers Capital accumulated by merchants and shipbuilders Plentiful labor supply Poor agricultural conditions Lowell (or Waltham) system brought girls to factories for a few years.

Sectionalism & National Growth Industrial

Beginnings

Great

Britain was ahead of the US in industrialization Britain banned emigration of skilled mechanics Samuel Slater, (pretending to be farm laborer) came to US in 1789 Helped

design and build first cotton mill in US at Pawtucket, RI in 1790. Used Slater’s adaptation of spinning frame invented by Englishman Richard Arkwright. Industrialization

grew quickly – textiles & shoes

Sectionalism & National Growth Industrial Regions

Beginnings

Industrialized at different rates New England where soil made agriculture profits unlikely, industrialization occurred quickly South where agriculture was mainstay of economy, industrialization almost did not exist.

Sectionalism & National Growth Industrial

Beginnings

Industrialization

was a gradual process consisting of many components: Subdivision

of tasks Gathering of workers in large factories (not always) High speed machines replaced skilled handwork Industrialization Farmers

changed lives.

moved to cities – no longer working outside at their own pace Regulated by clocks and bells instead of tasks and the sun

Sectionalism & National Growth Industrial

Beginnings Changed lives outside of factory also Cheaper

products available Undermined skill of artisans Encouraged specialization

Sectionalism & National Growth Causes

of Industrialization

Embargo

Act of 1808 Era of Good Feelings saw agreement that US needed tariffs Once

protected NE rose from 4 million yards in 1817 to 323 million yards by 1840. US

had river advantage Transportation Revolution brought manufacturers closer to markets in South and West

Sectionalism & National Growth Causes GB

of Industrialization

ahead in developing technology relevant to industrialization GB had larger population and less land (people would work for less) US had higher wages for unskilled labor – spurred research for labor saving technology Americans copied GB designs Francis Cabot Lowell went to GB and made drawings, 1811 NO Guilds (craft organizations) to limit a workers research

Sectionalism & National Growth Causes Eli

of Industrialization

Whitney in 1798 (after cotton gin) won government contract to produce ten thousand muskets by 1800. Interchangeable parts He missed his deadline but his idea caught on.

Sectionalism & National Growth Textile New

Towns in New England

England first industrial region Trade wars prior to War of 1812 had devastated its commercial economy and persuaded its wealthy merchants to invest in manufacturing Westward migration of many of New England’s young men left surplus of young women for cheap labor source

Sectionalism & National Growth Textile

Towns in New England

Cotton 1813

Textiles

Boston Associates (Francis Cabot Lowell) incorporated Boston Manufacturing Company. 10 x the capital of any previous American cotton mill Quickly built mills in Waltham and Lowell By 1836 controlled eight companies – more than six thousand workers

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