social stories

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Communications
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Intro to Social Coaching James Emmett APSE Webinar

Theory of Mind • What if I don’t know that you have mind separate and different from my own? • What if I don’t realize that you are a unique individual in your own right? • What if I don’t realize that you have my interests at heart and want to offer me the benefits of your own experiences and thinking and ability? • What if I don’t know that you experience things differently from me?

Possible Work Problems

• Understanding what is expected of them when the job is not specific enough, the tasks are not defined and varied, the employer’s expectations are not clear or there is little routine to the job

• Recognizing the informal rules of the workplace which others can understand without being told

Possible Problems (cont.)

• Working as a team..cannot offer recognize humor, hints, ironies • seeking help in appropriate ways…having difficulty assessing the best times and methods to use

• Recognizing that coworkers might find their behavior intrusive or odd • coping with unexpected changes at work…their consequent anxiety may make them less competent and more demanding

Problems (cont.) • Different sensory reactions from the • Remembering info norm…background that has been noises, florescent communicated lighting, open verbally windows, vibrations.

Ways to Improve the Experience of Work • Gradual intro into the work situation, with support • Clear, specific job tasks--made clear to employer • Written, diagrammatic or pictorial instructions

• A structured work pattern which enables the employee to complete one task before beginning another

Improving (cont.) • Clear line of management and an informed supervisor, or mentor who can be available to give advice • Checklists and timetables for work to be done

• Initial close supervision • Explicit rules of behavior and advice about unwritten rules in the workplace • Consistency from colleagues

Improving (cont.) • Immediate, clear and open feedback about the standard of work done • Guidelines for colleagues about how they can meet the individual needs in the workplace

• Contingency plans for dealing with unbearable stress, a place to go for refuge, and contact with someone who will give support

Getting a Match and an Action Plan • List the environmental needs of the student • List the job requisites of the job • List the requisites of the workplace • Find the level of the match

Social Coaching In the Workplace

Social Coaching

1.Values 2.Self-Advocacy 3.Social Skills 4.Communication Skills

Minnesota Work Adjustment Theory • Work skills matched with Job Requirements = Satisfactoriness • Work Values matched with Job Reinforcers = Satisfaction • Satisfaction + Satisfactoriness = Job Tenure

Relation to Autism • Too often we focus on satisfactoriness • We need to assess what a worker with autism values • We cannot assume what an individual values • From experience, job retention is significantly increased when a worker with autism’s values are addressed and met on the job

How to Assess Work Values • • • • •

Direct Interview Hobbies & Free Time Ask family Observations of behavior O-Net

Self-Advocacy Skills

1. Asking For Help 2. Saying “I don’t Understand” 3. Requesting a break

Social Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Understanding Job Responsibilities Understanding Directions Making Introductions Asking Questions Asking Permission Asking for Help Accepting Help Offering Help Requesting Information

Social Skills (cont.) 10. Taking Messages 11. Engaging In Conversation 12. Giving Directions 13. Receiving Compliments 14. Giving Compliments 15. Convincing Others 16. Apologizing 17. Accepting Criticism 18. Responding to a Complaint

Social Interaction On The Job • Temple Grandin is an individual with autism who has her Ph.D. in Animal Science • She defined the following Rule System to guide her social interactions and behaviors, especially on the job

Social Interaction (cont.) • This system is helpful to assist other individuals with autism in understanding social rules on the job • There are four categories in this system:

Really Bad Things • Defined as things that are considered extremely bad by a culture and are most time illegal • Examples: – Stealing someone’s work – Hitting a co-worker

Courtesy Rules • These things are important because they make others around you at work feel comfortable • Examples: – Cleaning up the lunch area after you finish lunch – Letting a co-worker in a rush make copies before you

Illegal But Not Bad • These things technically violate a law, but are not considered bad by the culture • Examples: – Speeding when you are late for work – “Stealing” a paper clip from a co-worker’s desk

Sins of the System • These are the unwritten rules of the workplace that will lead to termination. Some of these rules may vary from work place to work place. This is a category that is difficult for workers with autism • Examples: – Not asking a supervisor 6 times when it will be time to return from break – Not discussing sexual issues with a co-worker

Being a Competent Communicator?

The “Culture” of Autism: Being a Cross-cultural Translator (adapted from Mesibov)

Difficulty in combining ideas

Additional neurological patterns

Focus on Detail

Difficulty organizing and sequencing


Difficulty generalizing



How to Aid Understanding • • • •

Talk less Give wait time (use silence) Keep it concrete and straightforward Do not use sarcasm or abstract phrases

Environmental Supports Are the materials that assist the individual client taking into account? – Their sensory needs – Their need to understand the passage of time – The ways they learn based on their strengths – Their need for accurate consistent information

Why Is It Important? • So they can make sense of their world • So they can become flexible • So they can be independent

Time Supports that organize sequences of time and time frames – Schedules – Mini schedules – Completion guidelines – Waiting supports – Accepting change

Space Supports that provide specific information about the organization of the environment – Location – Sensory overload supports – Personal space – Relationship to others

Events Supports that connect the steps of an activity to the people/objects – Routines – Rule cards – Task completion – Mini schedules – Possessions – Privacy

Expressions Supports that allow the client to initiate interactions and have control – Making choices – Self-control

– Improving expressions

Considerations for Designing Environment Supports • The client • Physical Space • Sensory Space

• User Friendliness

Tools to Help Our Clients Improve Social Communication

Helping Our Client’s Understanding • 1. Visual supports

• 2. Social stories

Social Stories

Good social stories use 3 types of sentences: 1. Descriptive 1. Perspective 1. Directive

Social Story Ratio 0-1 Directive _______________ 2-5 Descriptive, Perspective or Affirmative Sentences From T-TAC Sue Palko, VCU

The basic social story ratio defines the proportion of sentences used in a story. This ratio is maintained no matter what the length or focus of the story. This ratio ensures the DESCRIPTIVE quality of the story. Some social stories do not contain directive sentences but are entirely descriptive. Following this ratio results in a social story that has a patient and reassuring quality and can be referred to time and time again as a source of social information for the student with ASD

Social Skill Supports Comic Strip Conversation: A Comic Strip Conversation is a visual

conversation between two or more people using simple illustrations in a comic strip


Social Skill Supports • Comic Strip Conversation: An individual uses simple drawings to

communicate what he/she and others say, do, and think. These words and drawings serve as an outline of the conversation

Other Social Skill Support Strategies (cont.) 4. Mentoring:  Mentor Training  Incentives & Follow-Up

Social Support Strategies (cont.) 5. Role Play:  Specific text with instructor  Specific text with peer

 Improvise entire interaction  Practice in natural environment

Social Support Strategies (cont.) 6) Scripting: Write the “play” together 7) Board Games: Concrete practice 8) Direction Instruction: Class style 9) Peer Tutoring: Helping each other 10) Incidental Teaching: Reinforce when it occurs in natural environment

Social Support Strategies (cont.) 11) Rehearsal: Acronyms, practice Accepting Help: Greet Express appreciation Tell how to help Thank the person GETT

Social Support Strategies (cont.) 12) Modeling 13) Visualization 14) Rule Cards 15) Immediate Feedback 16) Self-Management 17) Organizational Chart 18) Social Communication Groups

Contact Me James Emmett Social Coaching Institute Corporate Disability Consultant [email protected] 574-808-9779

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