Somaliland Presentation Week 11

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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Spencer Macquarrie & Bucky Pierce

Somaliland – Quick Facts •

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Located on the eastern Horn of Africa – Occupies the same land area controlled by British Colonial Rulers before 1960 Capital: Hargeisa Official Languages: Somali, Arabic as a second language, English Government: Presidential Constitutional Republic – Acting President: Ahmed Mohamed Mohamood (elected during 2010 elections) Currency: Somaliland Shilling Population: 3.5 million – Population Density: 25 people/km2 Currently, Somaliland’s self-proclamation as an independent state remains internationally unrecognized, though it does have informal ties with bordering states and states that have a large Somali diaspora presence

Geography • •

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Situated in northwestern Somalia – 460 mile coastline on Gulf of Aden Border States: – Djibouti (West) – Ethiopia (South) – Puntland Region of Somalia (East) Area: 137,600 km2 (About the size of England) Climate: Mixture of wet and dry regions, diverse topography ranging from fertile mountains to arid desert – Able to support farms and livestock, as well as a number of offshore ecologies in the coastal regions

Demographics •

Most in Somaliland speak two of three official languages: Somali, Arabic and English – Somali declared official language in constitution, but Arabic is a required subject in school Somali dialects: Northern, Benaadir and Maay – Dialect dominance appropriated by region Main religion practiced in Somaliland is Islam, with most Somalis belonging to Sunni branch – Very few Christians Clan system dominated by Isaaq, the thirdlargest demographic group in Somalia – Clan groupings are important social units, with clan membership playing an important role in Somaliland’s politics and culture – Clans are patrilineal, often divided into sub-clans with many sub-divisions

Economy • •

Schilling is not an internationally recognized currency, and has no official exchange rate Bank of Somaliland serves as the country’s Central Bank. Constitutionally established in 1994 Economy relies primarily upon remittances and tax receipts from the broader Somali diaspora – Roughly $1B (USD) returns to Somaliland from Somalis working abroad – Accounts for roughly ¼ of household income in Somalia/Somaliland region – 40% of households rely upon this assistance from relatives abroad

Economy •

Dahabshiil – Handle 2/3 of these remittances. – Offer significantly better rates at roughly 3-4% VS. Western Union’s 7.1% Provision of official foreign aid has proven difficult – Contributions from NGO’s, religious groups, and the Diaspora help to expand the provision of key public services in the region Livestock drives this region’s economy – Export cattle, camels, and sheep to the Gulf region • 80% of national revenue comes from duties imposed at the port of Berbera • Region’s largest port, serves landlocked Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and even Uganda

Political Geography

1. Salal 2. Awdal 3. Gabiley 4. Garoodi 5. Sahil 6. Oodweyne

7. Togdheer 8. Cayn 9. Sarar 10. Sool 11. Sanaag 12. Maakhir 13. Hawd

Political History – Somalia’s Legacy •

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1888 – Established as a protectorate by the British – Initially established by the British as a protectorate in 1888, after a series of successful treaties with the Somali sultans who were ruling over the area at first – This region was referred to as “British Somaliland” – British did not have much interest in Somaliland – region was resource-barren • British essentially established the protectorate to secure a supply market, check the traffic in slaves, and to exclude the interference of foreign powers – No established administrative infrastructure beyond coastline 1960 – Independence – Area formerly known as British Somaliland became independent on June 26, 1960 – July 1, 1960 – Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland unite to form the Somali Republic July 1961 – Somali people ratified constitution, formed what is now considered Somalia October 1969 – Prime Minister Shermarke is assassinated, military coup d'état carried out by Mohamed Siad Barre – Barre regime would rule for next 21 years, becoming increasingly totalitarian and repressive in the process – Covered in Somalia presentation by Lindsay and Megan

Political History – Somaliland •

1991 – Somaliland Independence – Under the Barre regime, several opposition resistance movements sprang up, including the Isaaq-led Somali National Movement (SNM) • Isaaq is one of the main Somali clans, whose members primarily reside in northwestern Somalia, or what is now considered to be the Somaliland region – SNM, at inception, had a unionist constitution, but it eventually began to rally for independence and secession from the Somali state – Burao Conference – Under leadership of Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur, local administration declared the northwestern Somali territories as independent, formally establishing the Somaliland territory • Tuur became first President of Somaliland 1993 – Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal was appointed Tuur’s successor after the Grand Conference of National Reconciliation, a conference which also led to improvements in security and consolidation over the new territory – Egal was reappointed in 1997 and remained in power until his death in 2002 2003 – Dahir Rayale Kahin became the first elected President of Somaliland

Somaliland Politics •

Somaliland currently employs a hybrid system of governance, combining traditional and western institutions During the Boorama inter-clan Conference of 1993, a qabil (community or clan) system of government was constructed in which three separate branches of government were established – Three branches are the Somaliland equivalent of the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch, all of which operate independently of each other Parliament contained an established House of Elders that included wise men from every clan at Independence. This system was incorporated into the national governance structure by rebel leaders and was meant as a power-sharing coalition among Somaliland’s main clans – Each clan was represented proportionally, the allocations of which were determined by a formula that left a lot of clans unsatisfied with their representation – After several extensions of this interim government, Somaliland transitioned to a multi-party democracy in 2002 – Three established parties maintain dominance in an attempt to create ideology-based elections rather than clan-based elections – Three parties are: United Peoples’ Democratic Party (UPDP), the Peace, Unity and Development Party (PUDP) and the Justice and Development Party (JDP) Somaliland constitution doesn’t allow for more than three parties, and parties are not allowed to be defined by religion or clan. Each party does have loose clan affiliations

Separation of Powers •

Executive Branch – Led by elected President, includes vice-President and a Council of Ministers – Members of Council of Ministers are nominated by President and approved by Parliament’s House of Representatives – President must approve bills passed by Parliament before they come into effect – President can serve a maximum of two five-year terms Legislative Branch – Bicameral Parliament – upper house consists of House of Elders (qabil legacy), lower house consists of House of Representatives • House of Elders – elected indirectly by local communities every six years, shares powers in passing laws with House of Representatives, has role of solving internal conflicts, possesses power of extending Presidential term if conditions exist that make elections impossible • House of Representatives – elected directly by people for five year terms, has absolute power in financial matters and confirmation of Presidential appointments, also has weak power over Executive Branch Judicial Branch – Divided into district courts, regional courts, regional appeals courts and the Supreme Court

Current Events – Border Disputes •

Somaliland continues to claim the entire area formerly occupied by British Currently formally in control of western half of former British Somaliland – Northeastern Maakhir declared itself a separate, unrecognized, autonomous state within Somalia in 2007 – Southeastern Sool state has been central to disputes between Somaliland and neighboring Puntland Sool was under control of Puntland from 2003 to 2008 – Tensions between Puntland and Somaliland have escalated into violence several times during time period – Late 2007 – Somaliland took control of Sool’s capital, Las Anod 2010 – Northwestern Awdal region threatens secession if Somaliland is recognized internationally, forming “Awdal State” – Does not recognize Somaliland government’s claim to sovereignty

Current Events (cont.) •

The fourth round of talks between officials from Somaliland and the SFG (Somalia Federal Government) regarding Somaliland’s independence have been postponed – The SFG asked Turkish officials mediating the discussion for postponement to resolve other pressing political and security issues – Third round of talks ended in an agreement between both parties establishing bilateral control in the management of Somalia national airspace – Group is based in the Somaliland city of Hargeisa

Challenges to the “State” •

Article: “Some thoughts on the challenges facing Somaliland” – “There is no interest for Somaliland to continue holding bilateral talks with Somalia… [The Somalian President] needs to focus on his country and forget about Somaliland.” – “Somalilanders should focus like a laser beam on moving their country forward and close their eyes from the flirtations between Somalia and western donors.” – “Domestically, Somaliland needs to employ the bottom up, grass roots process that served the country so well in the past to straighten her electoral system.” • “Any elite anywhere in the country who acts unethically during election time must understand that he is destroying the country.” – “Somaliland must remain very vigilant against terrorism.” • “Even though Al Shabab is weaker today, still vigilance is the way to protect the lives and properties of all as well as the progress of the country.” – “Somalilanders need to rely upon their resources and expertise to develop their country.” • “If they can pave a small of stretch roadway at a time, build a school, a clinic, a business, and drill a well at a time, over time they will go a long way in developing their country.” – “To foster trade they need to keep maintaining good relations with their neighbors- Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia.”

Bibliography •

Iman, Adan. "Some Thoughts on the Challenges Facing Somaliland." SomalilandPress, 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. .

“Somalia" The World Factbook. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. .

"Somaliland Profile." BBC News. BBC, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. .

"Somaliland." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. .

"U.S. Relations With Somalia." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 16 Aug. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. .

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