SPEECH-LANGUAGE - CTE - Online Learning Management

January 9, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Social Psychology
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SPEECH-LANGUAGE DISORDERS OVERVIEW OF CHILDHOOD SPEECH-LANGUAGE DISORDERS Development of Young Children with Disabilities #872.514 (61) Carol Ann Heath

Sources Used:

 Hart, B. (2000). A natural history of early language Experience. TECSE 20:1, 28-32.  Lesaux, N. K. (2004 Presentation at Ready by Five Symposium, Baltimore, Maryland) Promoting Language and Literacy in Young Children from Diverse Backgrounds.  Lyon, G. R. What Happens Early Really Matters. Informal Presentation In Maryland. Source: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.  Child Development Institute, http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/disorders/children_with_communication_disord ers.shtml

Language Can be defined as a set of symbols used

for communication Symbols are used to organize thoughts and new learning and to communicate with others May be spoken or take a visual form as through gestures or written language

Language Involves the understanding and use of

sounds, words, and the rules for combining their use Involves both receptive and expressive processes

Development of Oral Language Involves the understanding and use of * Phonology * Semantics * Morphology * Syntax or grammar * Pragmatics

Phonology Refers to the sound system of a language

and the rules that govern the sound combinations Research has demonstrated that by the age of six months, infants have learned to differentially respond to the sounds of their native language

Semantics Refers to the system that governs the

meanings of words and sentences

Morphology Refers to the system that governs the

structure of words and the construction of word forms

Syntax Refers to the system governing the order

and combinations of words to form sentences, and the relationship among the elements of the sentence

Pragmatics Refers to the system that combines the

above language components in functional and socially appropriate communication May involve the tone of voice used, rules for turn-taking in conversation, facial expressions and gestures used to accompany speech

Normal Language Development Language develops rapidly and easily in

most children despite variation in environment and intelligence

Communication Disorder An impairment in the ability to receive,

send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems May be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech

Communication Disorder May range in severity May be developmental or acquired

May result in a primary disability or it

may be secondary to other disabilities

Prevalence Rates vary from 2-3% to about 20 %

depending upon the age of the children studied 10% of children will have a moderate to severe speech and/or language delay at eh time of school entrance

Language Disorder Impaired comprehension and/or use of

spoken, written and/or other symbol systems May involve the form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax), the content of language (semantics), and/or the function of language (pragmatics) in any combination

Children At Risk for Language Delay Intellectual disability Hearing Loss Central Nervous System Impairment

affecting the speech production mechanism Autism Spectrum Disorders Emotional Disturbance Extreme environmental deprivation

Child Language Impairments  Difficulty understanding and using language to communicate  Problems understanding and using

appropriate vocabulary, word order, or grammar and difficulty following directions or some have difficulty using language, and difficulty staying on topic in a conversation are common characteristics

Child Language –child may have some of the following: Difficulty breaking down language into

its parts Difficulty with social rules of conversation Infrequently initiating conversation or topics

Child Language – may have some of the following  Delay in onset of

 Incorrect grammar

language development  Difficult following directions  Problems understanding wh- questions  Difficulty with abstract language

usage  Difficulty recalling words  Frequent use of nonspecific words  Stories, written and spoken, are disjointed and miss details

Child Language – possible signs of underlying language impairment Easily distracted Limited attention span

Slower to respond or answer questions Slower to put thoughts together to

express their ideas Seems vague – disorganized behavior Lack of planning and sequencing

Speech Disorder An impairment of the articulation of

speech sounds, fluency and/or voice

Articulation Impairments The atypical production of speech

sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions or distortions that may interfere with intelligibility

Articulation Impairment May be caused by a problem in the

mouth or nose structures that are used for speech (cleft palate or severe tongue tied) May be caused by an abnormality in the function of the muscles or nerves in speech production (cerebral palsy) Some may have no apparent cause

Dyspraxia of Speech An inability to perform the very fast

mouth/tongue movements for speech when there is no hearing, perception, or motor problems As known as developmental apraxia of speech, developmental verbal dyspraxia, or developmental articulatory dyspraxia

Characteristics of Dyspraxia  Searching or “groping” movements noted during attempts to produce speech sounds  Child can produce some sounds at certain

times and not at other times “volitional” or deliberate production may be more difficulty than spontaneous production  Sound errors are inconsistent

Characteristics of Dyspraxia Does not exhibit typical development

speech sound errors Difficulty with fast repeated speech sequences

Voice Disorder Definition Characterized by the abnormal production and/ or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/ or duration, which is inappropriate for an individual’s age and/ or sex

Types of Voice Disorders Quality – hoarseness, hyper/hypo

nasality, breathiness Pitch – pitch breaks, monotone, to high/too low Loudness – too soft/too loud, inappropriate for situation

Causes of Voice Disorders May result from physiological changes in

the body, such as cancer, severe allergies, or asthma Organic factors may include vocal nodules and polyps on the vocal cords

Stuttering of Fluency Disorder: Definition Is an interruption in the flow of speaking

characterized by atypical rate, rhythm, and repetitions in sounds, syllables, words, and phrases May be accompanied by excessive tension, struggle, behavior, and secondary mannerisms

Characteristics of Stuttering Primary – hesitations; repetitions and

prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases; and difficulty initiating speech Secondary – facial grimaces, eye blinking, generalized body tension, and gasping for air

Causes of Stuttering  Several theories about the causes of stuttering exists  “underlying motor problem” – causes  Difficulty planning a sequence of speech movements  “stress related”

 “difficulty coordinating the onset of voice with breathing and production of speech sounds”

Hearing Disorder The result of impaired auditory

sensitivity of the physiological auditory system May limit the development, comprehension, production, and/or maintenance of speech and/or language Referred to as “deaf or hard of hearing”

Deaf A hearing disorder that limits an

individual’s aural/oral communication performance to the extent that the primary sensory input for communication may be other than the auditory channel

Hard of Hearing A hearing disorder, whether fluctuating

or permanent, which adversely affects an individual’s ability to communicate. The Hard of Hearing individuals relies on the auditory channel as the primary sensory input for communication

Central Auditory Processing Disorders  Deficits in the information processing of audible signals not attributed to impaired peripheral hearing sensitivity or intellectual

impairment  Limitations in the ongoing transmission, analysis, organization, transformation, elaboration, storage, retrieval, and use of information contained in audible signals

Behaviors Associated CAPD  Poor phonological sensitivity combined with deficits in fine auditory discrimination  Auditory comprehension problems due to

limited word discrimination and auditory memory  Difficulty procession verbal information where there is competing background noise

Behaviors Associated with CAPD Diminished word discrimination in a

poor acoustic environment or when a message is altered in some way Difficulty following directions Easily distracted May have poor performance in reading, spelling, and other language-related areas compared to peers

Associated Conditions Learning disability Autism Spectrum Disorder

Traumatic Brain Injury

Language Learning Disabilitiesproblems may include:  Age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing

 Difficulty understanding and retaining info

 Difficulty expressing ideas coherently

 Difficulty with reading comprehension

 Difficulty with

learning new vocabulary

Autism Spectrum Disorder Communication problems vary

depending upon the intellectual and social development of child Some may be unable to speak, while others may have rich vocabularies

Communication issues in Autism Spectrum Disorder  Difficulty using language effectively

 Difficulty with topic maintenance

 Echolalia

 Problems with word

 Poor eye contact  Difficulty with topic initiation

and sentence meaning, intonation, and rhythm

Communication IssuesTraumatic Brain Injury  Slowed processing and poor memory  Impaired ability for

self management  Disorientation and confusion

 Poor judgment and difficulty with emotional control

 Impaired comprehension  Word finding issues

 Inappropriate speech

 Slowly increasing numbers and proportions of children

are being served in programs for the disabled.  During the 1993–94 school year, 12 percent of students were served in these programs compared with 14 percent in 2003–04.  Some of the rise since 1993–94 may be attributed to the increasing proportion of children identified as having speech or language impairments, which rose from 2.3 percent of enrollment to 3.0 percent of enrollment; 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2006). Digest of Education Statistics, 2005 (NCES 2006-030), Chapter 2.

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