States of Consciousness
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What is consciousness?
Fact or Falsehood? T F 1. Consciousness has an unlimited capacity. T F 2. Most university students are “evening” persons whose performance improves throughout the day. T F 3. People who sleep seven to eight hours a night tend to outlive those who are chronically sleep-deprived. T F 4. The most common dreams are those with sexual imagery. T F 5. The majority of the characters in men’s dreams are female. T F 6. Most psychologists believe that dreams provide a key to understanding our inner conflicts. T F 7. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform feats they would otherwise find impossible. T F 8. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform acts they would otherwise find immoral. T F 9. Those given morphine to control pain often become addicted to the drug. T F 10. In large amounts, alcohol is a depressant; in small amounts, it is a stimulant.
1. F (p. 272) 6. F (pp. 287–288) 2. T (p. 275) 7. F (p. 291) 3. T (p. 281) 8. F (p. 292) 4. F (p. 286) 9. F (p. 297) 5. F (p. 286) 10. F (p. 298)
Our level of awareness of ourselves and our environment We are conscious to the degree we are aware of what is going on inside and outside ourselves. Much of consciousness is outside our awareness ◦ Beginner driver ◦ Advanced driver
We are not conscious or unconscious! There are different levels and different states of consciousness. More sophisticated brain imaging tools and an increased emphasis on cognitive psychology = more study
Conscious – What are you focusing on right now? Nonconscious – Heartbeat, respiration, digestion, etc Preconscious – you are not currently thinking about it, but you could be
1. 2. 3.
Your favorite toy as a child Your first day of school
Cont’d 4. Subconscious level – Information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior. ◦
Priming, mere exposure(we prefer stimuli we have been exposed to over novel stimuli ) and blindsight
Unconscious – Some events are unacceptable to our conscious mind are are repressed into the unconscious mind. DEBATEABLE!
Which level of consciousness does it fit? Explain
While we are asleep, we are less aware of ourselves and our environment than when we are awake. Other states of consciousness are druginduced states, hypnosis,etc
Life has rhythmic tides. They include A. Annual cycles – geese migrate, bears hibernate and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep and mood.(seasonal affective disorder) B. 28 day menstrual cycles – check out mood score on p. 274 C. 24 hour cycles – varying alertness, body temp and growth hormone secretion D. 90 minute cycles – sleep stages
Our bodies synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of the day Sharpest thinking, memory most accurate
At our circadian peak
Most college students are owls Most older adults are larks
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Drink caffeine late in the day Adjusting sleep schedule ◦ Pull an all-nighter ◦ Stay up late on weekends and sleep until noon or later!
Stage 1 sleep onset › › › ›
Brain produces alpha waves Drowsy but awake Might experience hallucinations (falling) We don’t know we are in sleep until we are out of it!
Stage 2 › EEG shows sleep spindles (short bursts of rapid brain waves › Relax more deeply and are clealry asleep › Sleeptalking can happen (garbled speech)
Stage 3 ◦ Delta waves (large, slow waves) ◦ Last about 30 min, you are hard to awaken, but still conscious: Roll around without falling out of bed Don’t crush infant sleeping with you, unless drunk
◦ Sleep through loud noises
Stage 4 ◦ Delta waves ◦ 30 minutes long ◦ Bedwetting, sleepwalking occur
Very difficult to awaken someone Will be disoriented and groggy Important in replenishing body’s chemical supplies (hormones) Increased exercise increases time we spend in stages 3 & 4
After Delta sleep we go back through stages 3, 2, 1. In stage 1, brain produces intense activity: Eyes dart back and forth, muscles twitch = REM Sometimes called paradoxical sleep ◦ Brain waves appear awake!
Dreams usually occur Deprivation of REM interferes with memory More stress during day = more REM sleep that night
We cycle through these approx 90 minute stage 4-7 times each night Closer to morning, more time in stage 1,2, and REM Babies sleep more (18 hours) and have more
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Insomnia- most common disorder ◦ Persistent getting to sleep or staying asleep ◦ Cure: reduce caffeine, exercise, maintain consistent sleep pattern
Narcolepsy ◦ Periods of intense sleepiness, can fall asleep at unpredictable times ◦ Treatment – medication and changing sleep patterns (naps)
Sleep Apnea ◦ Serious problem, may cause death ◦ Person stops breathing, wakes slightly, gasps for air, goes back to sleep ◦ Robs person of deep sleep = poor attention and poor memory ◦ Usually overweight men ◦ Treatment: respiration machine provides air
Night Terrors and Sleep walking ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
Mostly in children Don’t remember episode Occur during stage 4 sleep Grow out of them
Lack of concentration, depression Hunger and obesity Fatal accidents Irritability, mistakes Slowed reaction times (20% of traffic accidents) Suppresses immune system Feelings of boredom
Am I Sleep Deprived? Respond to each of the following items by circling “T” for true or “F” for false. T F 1. I need an alarm clock in order to wake up at the appropriate time. T F 2. It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning. T F 3. Weekday mornings I hit the snooze button several times to get more sleep. T F 4. I feel tired, irritable, and stressed-out during the week. T F 5. I have trouble concentrating and remembering. T F 6. I feel slow with critical thinking, problem solving, and being creative. T F 7. I often fall asleep watching TV. T F 8 I often fall asleep in boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms. T F 9. I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a low dose of alcohol. T F 10. I often fall asleep while relaxing after dinner. T F 11. I often fall asleep within five minutes of getting into bed. T F 12. I often feel drowsy while driving. T F 13. I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings. T F 14. I often need a nap to get through the day. T F 15. I have dark circles around my eyes.