Summer Heat PD 2013 Secondary: Dr. Olson

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THE READING/WRITING CONNECTION: A COGNITIVE STRATEGIES APPROACH TO HELPING ENGLISH LEARNERS ANALYZE THEME IN LITERARY NONFICTION

Carol Booth Olson University of California, Irvine [email protected] Miami Dade USD June 2013

Reading Literal Comprehension

Interpretation

What the text says

What the text means

Writing Summary

Analysis Interpretation Commentary

Academic Literacy Expected of High School Students on Exit Exams in 26 States Summarizing texts  Using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages  Assessing the writer’s use of language for rhetorical and aesthetic purpose  Evaluating evidence and arguments presented in texts and critiquing the logic of arguments made in them  Composing and writing extended, reasoned texts that are welldeveloped and supported with evidence and details (Wong Fillmore & Snow, 2003) 

How well do all students write? 2011 NAEP Grade 8- Only 27% “Proficient” or Above Grade 12- Only 27 % “Proficient” or Above

Gaps in Achievement Grade 12 White

27% “Proficient”

Hispanic 11% “Proficient” Black

8% “Proficient”

What about English Learners? Grade 8

EL

Not EL

At or Above “Proficient”

1%

28%

Grade 12

1%

31%

“A major reason for this growing inequality is that instruction is unequally distributed by track level.” Honors-rigorous academic work Low achievers, children of the poor, ELLs-receive instruction that places a premium on the transmission of information, providing little room for “the exploration of ideas and higher level literacy.” Applebee, Langer, Nystrand, & Gamoran (2003)

A sense of urgency … 

Every school day 7,000 high school students drop out.



Only 70 percent of all entering freshmen and half of students of color finish high school with a regular diploma.



Only 30 percent of students entering high school read at grade level.



An estimated 85 percent of current jobs and almost 90 percent of fast-growing and best-paying jobs now require some post-secondary education. - Alliance for Excellent Education

Enter the National Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects

Purpose * Fewer, clearer, higher * * * *

standards Focused on college and career readiness Inclusive of rigorous content and higher order skills Internationally benchmarked Research and evidence-based

Let’s take a look at the CCSS College and Career Anchor Standards for Reading and Writing. What are students expected to know and be able to do?

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

Key Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

The same ten CCR anchor standards for Reading apply to both literary and informational texts, including texts in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects.

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

Text and Types and Purposes 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 2. Write informatively/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.

Key Verbs Analyze Assess Convey Compare Comprehend Delineate Determine Draw Evidence

Evaluate Examine Integrate Interpret Make Inferences Reflect Summarize Write (Compose)

So, as you can see, the CCSS-ELA set a high bar for all students in terms of their level of academic literacy.

Juggling Contraints

Communicative

Contextual

Linguistic

Textual

Cognitive

Affective Frederikson & Dominic, 1981

FACTS ABOUT ENGLISH LEARNERS • Fastest growing segment of the K-12 population • Largest increases in grades 7-12 • Speak more than 350 languages • 77% speak Spanish •40% have origins in Mexico • 30% of all ELS are in California! • By 2020, 1 in 4 children enrolled in K-12 will be Latino

59% of ELS in California are Long Term English Learners scoring at Below Basic and Far Below Basic.

2011 NAEP — EL Performance

8th Grade

65% Below Basic

12th Grade

80% Below Basic

Application of Common Core Standards for English Language Learners:

The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers strongly believe that all students should be held to the same high expectations outlined in the Common Core State Standards. This includes students who are English language learners (ELLs). However, these students may require additional time, appropriate instructional support, and aligned assessments as they acquire both English language proficiency and content area knowledge.

Question! How can we help ALL of our students to become confident and complete readers and writers who can meet the rigorous new Common Core standards?

“Standards are not curriculum; there are multiple ways to teach to these standards, and therefore, there will be multiple approaches that could help students accomplish the goals set out in these standards.”

A focus on results rather than means By emphasizing required achievements, the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed.

Teachers are thus free to provide students with whatever their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful for meeting the goals set out in the Standards.

WHAT IS A COGNITIVE STRATEGY?

Cognition

=

Strategy

=

Cognitive Strategy =

the process of knowing or thinking a tool or tactic one uses to solve a problem a thinking tool

“Numerous reports from blue ribbon panels implicate poor understandings of cognitive strategies as the primary reason why adolescents struggle with reading and writing.” Conley, 2008

Tool Kit

Key Verbs Analyze Assess Convey Compare Comprehend Delineate Determine Draw Evidence

Evaluate Examine Integrate Interpret Make Inferences Reflect Summarize Write (Compose)

Three Types of Knowledge 

Declarative Knowledge



Procedural Knowledge



Conditional Knowledge

ESTRATEGIAS COGNITIVAS PARA EMPEZAR FRASES Para planear y establecer metas • Mi meta es… • Mi prioridad mayor es… • Cumpliré mi meta por…

Para formar interpretaciones • Lo que esto me significa es… • Creo que esto representa… • La idea que se me ocurre es…

Para explotar mi saber y entender • Ya sé que… • Esto me recuerda de… • Esto se relaciona con…

Para vigilar • Me perdí aquí porque… • Necesito releer la parte donde… • Sé que estoy en la pista correcta porque…

Para hacer preguntas • Me pregunto ¿por qué… • ¿Y si… • ¿Por qué… Para predecir • Creo que… • Pienso que… • Si____, entonces….

Para aclarar • Para comprender mejor, necesito entender más sobre… • Una cosa que todavía no es claro… • Me parece que esto quiere decir___, pero necesito…

Para imaginarse • Me puedo imaginar… • Me represento en la mente… • Si esto fuera una película…

Para revisar el sentido • Al principio pensé que____, pero ahora yo… • Mi último pensamiento de esto es… • Me está formando otro imagen aquí porque…

Para establecer relaciones • Esto me recuerda de… • Yo experimenté esto una vez cuando… • Puedo relacionarme con esto porque…

Para analizar la astucia del autor • Una línea dorada para mí es… • Esta palabra/frase se destaca para mí porque… • Me gusta la manera que el autor usa___para mostrar…

Para resumir • La esencia fundamental es… • La información clave es… • En resumidas cuentas, esto quiere decir…

Para reflejar y relacionarse • Así, la idea principal es… • Una conclusión que me ocurre es… • Esto se pertenece a mi vida porque…

Para adoptar un parentesco • El personaje con quien más me relaciono es… • Me metí en el cuento cuando • Puedo relacionarme con este autor porque…

Para evaluar • Me gusta/no me gusta___ porque… • Mi opinión es___porque… • El mensaje más importante es…

Planning and Goal Setting • My purpose is…

• My top priority is … • I will accomplish my goal by …

My goal: To add to your teacher’s tool kit and provide you with language arts strategies to teach ELs text-based analytical writing about theme in literary nonfiction.

Why teach theme?

College Board Survey of 2,351 High School and College Teachers in the United States

Identifying and or summarizing the theme or central argument of a text Making Inferences and drawing conclusions Understanding organizational strategies such Introduction, supporting examples,… Understanding and paraphrasing points made in a text Distinguishing fact from opinion Identifying the purpose of a portion of text

Justifying a personal interpretation of a text through specific references 2.6

2.65 2.7

2.75 2.8

Somewhat Important Important

2.85 2.9

2.95

Very

Somewhat Important Important

Very

A Look at Theme in the National Common Core State Content Standards Grade 4 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the texts.

Grade 7 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze it development over the course of the text objective.

Grade 5 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the texts, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic

Grade 8 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of a text, including its relationship to characters, setting and plot.

Grade 6 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details.

Grades 9-10 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of a text, including how it emerges and is shared by specific details. Grades 11-12 Determine two or ore themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of a text, including how they interact and build upon one another to produce a complex account.





“Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel” Leonard Pitts

“The Man in the Water” Roger Rosenblatt

“Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel” I think the theme is about disasters.  Good things happen and bad things happen.  The earth always kills people.  The rain will not stop.  Earth is mean to Haiti. 

“The Man in the Water” The man cared for passengers, nature did not.  A man rather save other people’s lives than his life.  The most important theme is when the helicopter comes.  The theme of the story is survival. 

Please read paper 705539 Pre-Test. What would you do to help this student improve?

Analysis of Students’ Pre-Tests     

  

Confusion of theme with character, plot, or topic Pure summary of article with no theme statement or commentary Writer-based prose “Well I’m going to tell you about…” Informal diction wanna, b4, cuz Misuse of academic expressions (collocations) “Jump into conclution” instead of “Jump to a conclusion” Hedges — kinda, sorta, maybe, probably Lack of sentence variety Errors in spelling, grammar sentence boundaries

So, how can we scaffold instruction to improve ELs’ text-based analytical writing?

Tapping Prior Knowledge • I already know that… • This reminds me of... • This relates to...

Japanese Earthquake

Visualizing • I can picture... • In my mind I see... • If this were a movie...

“Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” Mark Magnier March 17, 2011

Making Predictions • I’ll bet that... • I think... • If

, then...

Asking Questions • I wonder why... • What if... • How come...

Revising Meaning • At first I thought but now I…..

,

• My latest thought about this is... • I’m getting a different picture here because...

Analyzing the Author’s Craft • A golden line for me is... • This word/phrase stands out for me because... • I like how the author uses _ to show...

Summarizing • The basic gist is… • The key information is… • In a nutshell, this says that..

Adopting an Alignment • The character I most identify with is... • I really got into the story when... • I can relate to this author because...

Clarifying • To understand better, I need to know more about… •Something that is still not clear is… •I’m guessing that this means ____, but I need to...

Monitoring • I got lost here because… • I need to reread the part where… • I know I’m on the right track because...

Forming Interpretations • What this means to me is... • I think this represents... • The idea I’m getting is...

Reflecting and Relating • So, the big idea is... • A conclusion I’m drawing is... • This is relevant to my life because...

Making Connections • This reminds me of... • I experienced this once when... • I can relate to this because...

Evaluating • I like/don’t like because... • My opinion is because… • The most important message is _____because…

Analysis of Students’ Pre-Tests  







  

Confusion of theme with character, plot, or topic Pure summary of article with no theme statement or commentary Writer-based prose “Well I’m going to tell you about…” Informal diction wanna, b4, cuz Misuse of academic expressions (collocations) “Jump into conclution” instead of “Jump to a conclusion” Hedges – kinda, sorta, maybe, probably Lack of sentence variety Errors in spelling, grammar, sentence boundaries

WHAT IS A THEME? 



The theme of a literary work is the writer’s message or main idea. The theme is what the writer wants you to remember most. Most stories, novels, and plays, and sometimes poems have more than just one theme. Some themes are easier to spot than others. A character might say something about life that is clearly important. For example, in E.B. White’s Charlotte’s Web, Wilbur says at the end, “Friendship is one of the most satisfying things in the world.” That’s a statement of one of the book’s themes. The author leaves clues, but it is up to you to put them together and decide what the important message or lesson is. The article you read for your pre-test was nonfiction. Although some nonfiction texts are written solely to present facts and information, others are also intended to present the writer’s message and influence readers’ ideas about people, places, or events. Therefore, nonfiction texts can also contain themes.

HOW IS A TOPIC DIFFERENT THAN A THEME? 

A story’s theme is different from its topic or subject. The topic is simply what it’s about. The theme is the authors point about a topic. It is the “So what?” To identify a theme, sometimes it helps to generate a list of topics or big ideas in a story. Common topics for themes that you’ll find in stories are usually abstract nouns that deal with human relationships, such as bravery, friendship, injustice, revenge, etc.

What is a Theme Statement? A theme is more than one word like “love” or “prejudice.” Therefore, a theme statement must be a complete sentence that states the author’s message about life or about human relationships. A good theme statement applies to people in general, not just to the specific characters in the text. Here are some examples of theme statements. 

   



It is important to stand up for your beliefs. Prejudice is a destructive force in our society. If you interfere with fate, you will be sorry. Growing up means taking responsibility for yourself. When you open your heart to others, you’re open to hurt as well as love. It is important to accept people for what they are on the inside and not judge them based on how they appear on the outside.

THE LAND BEFORE TIME

TOPICS THAT LEAD TO THEMES Action Belief Bravery Brotherhood Courage Death Despair Destruction Determination Endurance

Faith Generosity Hardship Heart Human nature Heroism Hope Honor Loss Nobility

Persistence Perseverance Power Risk Taking Resilience Sacrifice Selflessness Spirit Survival

Faith: Faith can give you strength to persevere. Persistence: Never give up. There is always a chance you will achieve your goals if you keeping trying. Belief: Sometimes you have to believe in something even if you can’t see it. Hope/Endurance: If you have hope, you can endure great hardship. Heart: “Some things you see with your eyes; other you see with your heart.” Bravery: When bad things happen, we have to think positive and have the courage to keep going.

PROMPT “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” Writing Situation After a massive tsumani struck Japan in 2011, flooding towns and leaving whole neighborhoods submerged in seawater, Mark Magnier, a journalist for the LA Times, wrote an article about a man who donned scuba gear, plunged into the raging water, and risked his life in order to save his wife and mother from the disaster. Writing Directions After reading “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero,” select one important theme to write an essay about. Create a theme statement which expresses the author’s main point, lesson, or message in the article. Your theme statement will be the thesis of your essay—the claim you make about the writer’s message or main idea. As you develop your essay, pay special attention to:  Magnier’s description of Akaiwa’s actions after the tsunami hit  The language Magnier uses to describe the tsunami and the relationship between Akaiwa and the tsunami (including similes, metaphors, symbols, personification, or other figurative language)  Magnier’s response to the fact that Akaiwa risked his life while others waited for help to arrive When a journalist’s purpose is strictly to inform, he or she will present the facts objectively without trying to influence the reader. However, Magnier does more than this. Discuss Magnier’s purpose in writing “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero.” What message does he want his readers to take away from reading his article and why is it especially significant?

 

Read the prompt Highlight Do



What

Make a T chart

Do

What

PROMPT “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” Writing Situation After a massive tsumani struck Japan in 2011, flooding towns and leaving whole neighborhoods submerged in seawater, Mark Magnier, a journalist for the LA Times, wrote an article about a man who donned scuba gear, plunged into the raging water, and risked his life in order to save his wife and mother from the disaster. Writing Directions After reading “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero,” to write about. a which in the article. Your theme statement will be the thesis of your essay—the claim you make about the writer’s message or main idea. As you develop your essay, to:  Magnier’s of Akaiwa’s actions after the tsunami hit  The Magnier uses to describe the tsunami and the relationship between Akaiwa and the tsunami (including similes, metaphors, symbols, personification, or other figurative language)  Magnier’s to the fact that Akaiwa risked his life while others waited for help to arrive When a journalist’s purpose is strictly to inform, he or she will present the facts objectively without trying to influence the reader. However, Magnier does more than this. Discuss Magnier’s purpose in writing “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero.” What message does he want his readers to take away from reading his article and why is it especially significant?

Do Select Write Express Pay (Discuss) (Discuss/Analyze)

(Discuss)

Discuss Explain Explain

What one important theme an essay the author’s main point, message, or lesson attention to author’s description of actions after the tsunami The language the author uses to describe the tsunami and the relationship between Akaiwa and the tsunami author’s response to • the fact that Akaiwa risked his life while others waited the author’s purpose in writing the article the message why it is especially significant

Writing Directions After reading “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero,” select one important theme to write an essay about. Create a theme statement which expresses the author’s main point, lesson, or message in the article. Your theme statement will be the thesis of your essay—the claim you make about the writer’s message or main idea.

TOPICS THAT LEAD TO THEMES Action Belief Bravery Brotherhood Courage Death Despair Destruction Determination Endurance

Faith Generosity Hardship Heart Human nature Heroism Hope Honor Loss Nobility

Persistence Perseverance Power Risk Taking Resilience Sacrifice Selflessness Spirit Survival

SAMPLE THEME STATEMENTS FOR “HIDEAKI AKAIWA: JAPAN’S SCUBA HERO” Action: “In the face of seeming helplessness,” some people will rise to the occasion, take action and make a difference. Loss: Loss can bring people together. Heroism: A true hero is someone who will risk his life in order to ensure that others are safe. Determination/Perseverance: Through perseverance and through sheer determination, ordinary people can accomplish extraordinary feats of courage. Hope: The act of one man can give hope to a nation. Persistence: Never give up. There is always a chance that you will achieve your goals if you keep trying. Disaster/Heroism: When disaster strikes, the most heroic among us will risk everything to save others.

Students can then read two sample papers:  84132  46896

84132

49896

• Mostly summary • Doesn’t have a thesis in the introduction • Doesn’t respond to all parts of the prompt • Has many errors in writing conventions • (Note: Students may say that the writer has a theme statement at the end. When color-coding, show how the writer could turn this into a theme statement and make it the thesis in his/her introduction)

• Opening hook • Essay structure: introduction, main body, conclusion • Responds to all parts of the prompt • Clear thesis/theme statement • Use of quotes • Balance of commentary, summary, and supporting detail • Use of transition words • Sentence variety • Descriptive language • Solid conclusion which restates theme and considers why it is significant

Summary

Supporting Detail

Commentary

Yellow

Green

Blue

What is obvious Just the facts

Examples Evidence Quotes

Deeper thinking Interpretations Conclusions The So What? Insights Ahas Opinions

Writing Directions After reading “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero,” select one important theme to write an essay about. Create a theme statement which expresses the author’s main point, lesson, or message in the article. Your theme statement will be the thesis of your essay—the claim you make about the writer’s message or main idea.

Sample Hooks from “Hideaki Akaiwa”

Introduction to Essay on “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” “As the death toll keeps rising, most of what we hear from Japan is bad news. But within all the sadness are these few stories of triumph and downright determination.” One such story TAG recounted in the article, “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero,” by LA Times journalist, Summary Mark Magnier, describes how one man risked his Statement/ life to save family members from the devastating Conflict tsunami in Ishinomaki, Japan. Donning scuba gear, Akaiwa plunged into a violent torrent and dodged floating cars and battered houses in order to locate his missing wife and bring her to safety. Theme Statement/ When disaster strikes, it often motivates ordinary people to perform extraordinary acts of courage. Thesis

Hook

Summary

Supporting Detail

Commentary

Yellow

Green

Blue

What is obvious Just the facts

Examples Evidence Quotes

Deeper thinking Interpretations Conclusions The So What? Insights Ahas Opinions

Introduction to Essay on “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” Hook

“As the death toll keeps rising, most of what we hear from Japan is bad news. But within all the sadness are these few stories of triumph and TAG downright determination.” One such story recounted in the article, “Hideaki Akaiwa: Summary Japan’s Scuba Hero,” by LA Times journalist, Statement/ Mark Magnier, describes how one man risked his Conflict life to save family members from the devastating tsunami in Ishinomaki, Japan. Donning scuba gear, Akaiwa plunged into a violent torrent and Theme dodged floating cars and battered houses in order Statement/ to locate his missing wife and bring her to safety. When disaster strikes, it often motivates ordinary Thesis people to perform extraordinary acts of courage.

As you develop your essay, pay special attention to:

 The

language Magnier uses to describe the tsunami and the relationship between Akaiwa and the tsunami (including similes, metaphors, symbols, personification, or other figurative language)  Magnier’s response to the fact that Akaiwa risked his life while others waited for help to arrive.

When Akaiwa heard the news that a devastating tsunami hit the town of Ishinomaki, he was at work. Knowing that his wife was in danger, he raced back home, only to find his neighborhood underwater. First, he got hold of some scuba gear. Then, “plunging into the water, dodging cars, houses and other debris, any of which could have killed him instantly, he battled the murderous waters.” Finally, he found his panic-stricken wife just in time, sharing his respirator with her to swim out of the flooded house to safety. Magnier calls Akaiwa a “virtual live action hero.” He is suggesting that this ordinary man’s actions were extraordinary and make him larger than life. Magnier’s reference to Akaiwa’s “Rambo-style” army pants also reinforces the idea that Akaiwa is a heroic warrior.

As you develop your essay, pay special attention to:  Magnier’s description of Akaiwa’s actions after the tsunami hit

 Magnier’s

response to the fact that Akaiwa risked his life while others waited for help to arrive

Personification - A figure of speech in which ideas or things are represented as a person or creature and attributed with personality and human characteristics. Examples: • The wind howled with rage. • The avalanche devoured everything in its path. • The first rays of morning tip-toed through the meadow.

Simile – A comparison of two things using like or as Examples: • My love is like a red, red rose. • The cauldron of the volcano was as hot as a blast furnace. • The earthquake made a noise like a rumbling truck on the highway.

Metaphor – An indirect or implied comparison between two distinct objects that does not use the words like or as. Examples: • The tornado was a funnel of destruction. • The road snakes around and up the mountain. • When the husband died, she was hit by a tsunami of emotions.

The language Magnier uses to depict the tsunami also creates a picture of Akaiwa as a heroic warrior. For example, Magnier states, “The ruthless wave was picking up cars like they were toys and destroying buildings like they were made of paper.” This use of personification suggests that the tsunami is a cruel and heartless enemy and the similes show us how mighty the enemy was. In addition, when Magnier describes two thousand pound cars hanging from trees in “seemingly impossible embraces” he not only illustrates the power of the tsunami but he personifies the cars, turning them into victims of the disaster as well. Magnier even describes a three-inch fish as the “tiniest victim,” making us feel sorry for all those who felt the tsunami’s fury.

As you develop your essay, pay special attention to:  Magnier’s description of Akaiwa’s actions after the tsunami hit  The language Magnier uses to describe the tsunami and the relationship between Akaiwa and the tsunami (including similes, metaphors, symbols, personification, or other figurative language)

When a journalist’s purpose is strictly to inform, he or she will present the facts objectively, without trying to influence the reader. However, Magnier does more than this. Discuss Magnier’s purpose in writing “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero.” What message does he want his readers to takeaway from reading his article and why is it especially significant?

Purposes of Journalism   

      



To inform To instruct To persuade To celebrate To honor To condemm To expose To pay tribute To call to action To comment To share newsworthy events

In writing our conclusion, we want to choose a closing statement that will tie back to what we said in our introduction, so we’ll repeat the idea of ordinary people taking heroic action but use slightly different words.

I bet you think this is ENOUGH SCAFFOLDING!

Academic Expression

Meaning or Use

as a result (of)

used to show cause and effect

attribute

to believe or say that someone or something has a particular quality

equipment

the tools, machines, or clothes that you need to do a particular job or activity

for example

used to signal an example or evidence

however

used to introduce some form of contrast; often indicates that no matter what happens, a situation remains the same

illustrate

to make the meaning of something clearer or to be an example that something is true or that a fact exists

in addition

used to provide a further example or additional idea

indicate

to show that a particular situation exists or that is something is likely to be true

instead

used to say what is done, when you have just said what is not done (often used as a transition between sentences)

Word Bank: as a result attributes equipment

for example however illustrates

in addition indicates instead

In “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” by Mark Magnier, a man named Hideaki Akaiwa demonstrates unusual bravery. He did not watch others die after a tsunami hit his hometown. ____________, he bravely donned scuba _____________ and plunged into the water that submerged his neighborhood. ______________, he was able to save his wife and mother. _____________, he was able to save others in his town. Magnier _____________ Akaiwa’s ability to save others to Akaiwa’s bravery. _____________, Akaiwa never boasted of being brave, at least not in the article. Magnier explains that Akaiwa could have lost his life trying to save others. In his view, it was Akaiwa’s determination to overcome adversity that led to his bravery. ____________ because he was so determined to find his wife, he did not give up the effort, even when encountering freezing water and dangerous debris. The article about Japan’s tsunami ___________ that in the face of disaster and suffering, acts of bravery occur. Akaiwa’s extraordinary heroic actions _______________ his courage. They inspire others to face danger courageously.

AN INFORMAL PASSAGE TO IMPROVE The story describes something that took place on March 17, 2011. On that day, a big tsunami hit Ishinomaki, Japan. A guy name Hideaki Akaiwa lived in that town at that time. His wife was at home and she could not get outta their house cuz the tsunami covered the whole town with a lotta water. Akaiwa realized he had to rescue his wife. He looked for his scuba things and jumped in the water. He swam in the freezing water that kind of was over his entire neighborhood. Wen he got in the water, he coulda died for a lot of reasons. Like the cars and other dangerous stuff in the water could have killed him. He found his wife and she was ok, accept she needed air. So, he shared his respirator with her. Then he went back into the water to look for his mother. He was gonna try to save her too. After he saved her, he kept returning to the freezing water to rescue others and tried to save there lives. In the end, he was a hero. He was real brave.

After completing a Do/What Chart on their pre-test prompt, students receive Guidelines for Revising Your Pre-Test Essay

Average effect size 0.34

Please read the post-test for the EL student #705539 What improvements do you notice?

COMPARISON OF CAHSEE PASS RATES FOR 2002-2004 FOR THE UCI WRITING PROJECT’S PATHWAY PROJECT 2002

2003

2004

Overall State Pass Rate

54%

78%

75%

Overall State Hispanic Pass Rate

46%

66%

62%

Overall State ELL Pass Rate

28%

42%

39%

Overall Santa Ana Unified School District Pass Rate

40% N=2009

53% N=5039

62% N=3343

Santa Ana Unified School District Control Pass Rate Santa Students’ Ana Unified School

54% N=174 74%

75% N=119 91%

66% 184 93%

N= 147

N= 181

N= 179

District Pathway Students’ Pass Rate

Year 1 and 2 ALA effect size: significant impact in Year 1/2 Effet Si ze (AL A)

0.8 0.67

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

0.35

0.3

Effet Si ze (AL A)

0.2 0.1 0 Year 1

Yearc2

2007-08

2008-09

Year 1 and 2 CST effect size

.0 7*

.0 9*

.0 9*

.10 *

2011-2012 CPEC ALA Test Results Finding: Significant Improvement fromfrom Pre to Post Improvement Sample

Pretest to Posttest

Variable

N

Mean

Std. Err.

Std. Dev.

Posttest Pretest

577 577

6.17 4.53

0.09 0.08

2.10 1.81

0.09

2.16

Paired t-test

Difference 577 1.64*** Note. This difference of means test produced a t-statistic of 18.27*** * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001. · All 34 teachers were included · 70% of the original sample was scored · 12 point scale · Min for improvement = -6 · Max for improvement =+7

What Pathway Means to Me

By Irene Ramirez What Pathway means to me Is hard to say succinctly Construct the gist as I speak I’ll give some hints as to what I think My reading isn’t what it was I ask more questions and make predictions I try to visualize what I read I make connections, I do concede Imagery, symbolism I know what they are Before this year They were really hard

When I write, I know what to do I plan ahead, and so should you I form a thesis, I think of a hook I form opinions on what’s in the book Concrete details are important too They help support What you think And they prove! Image Grammar is also cool I write a sentence with participles I paint a picture With my pen in my hand The final result is oh so grand

In literature circles We sit ‘round in a ring Discussing our books It’s fun and interesting So Pathway had taught me to read and to write I knew how before But now I am tight I’ll leave you tonight With one thought before I go Pathway helps students Off to college I go!

What have you learned this afternoon that you can use in your classroom?

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