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Amanda Smith, Ed.M. Union City High School, Union City, NJ AAI Summer Research Program for Teachers
Introduction to the Immune System Lesson 1
Do Now Think back to the Online Stem Cell Lab, health class, and past science classes.
How many different cell types can you name that are related to the immune system? List them with their corresponding functions in your notebook.
Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity Innate Immediate, rapid response Generalized response, nonspecific No “memory”
Adaptive Slow response (a few days) Specific response to molecules that caused it Repeated exposure to molecules will cause increased responses
Response Question 1 You get the flu vaccine. A few weeks later, your sibling gets the flu and exposes you to the virus. Which part of your immune system will be prepared to fight off the flu virus? A. Innate Immune System B. Adaptive Immune System
Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Found in bone marrow Give rise to blood and immune cells Form two lineages: myeloid and lymphoid
Myeloid Lineage Gives rise to eight types of cells found in body tissues, focusing on three 1. Mast Cells Degranulate hormonal mediators when activated, involved with inflammation Activated by IgE antibodies, physical/chemical injury, or complement proteins Morphology: typical round cellular shape Defining Organelles: secretory granules and lipid bodies A Visual Interpretation Image at: http://www.mastcellaware.com/about.html
Myeloid Lineage Macrophages Matured monocytes that migrate into tissues from the circulatory system Role is to phagocytize dead cells and pathogens Produce NO, O2-, and H2O2 to break down material.
Specific names for specific locations, ex: Kupffer cells in liver Morphology: monocyte is a spherical shape, but macrophage shape depends on what tissue it goes and matures. Defining Organelles: extensive Rough ER, lysosomes/phagosomes, pseudopods
Myeloid Lineage Dendritic Cells Main role is to process antigen material and present it to other cells on its surface. AKA antigen presenting cell Morphology: form branch like projections (dendrites) during stage of development Defining Organelles: Golgi, ER, (proteasome – protein complex that degrades proteins)
Image at: https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/immunology--2/antigen-presenting-cells/dendritic-cells/
Response Question 2 A cut on your arm went untreated, and now, it is infected by bacteria. Which of the myeloid lineage cells are involved with fighting off the infection? A. B. C. D. E.
Mast Cells Macrophages Dendritic Cells A&B A, B & C
Lymphoid Lineage Gives rise to three major types of cells 1. Natural Killer Cells (NK) Role: limits the spread of tumors and microbial infections by inducing apoptosis in cells, limiting tissue damage Morphology: large granular lymphocyte, spherical Defining Organelles: cytoplasmic lytic granules, secretory lysosomes, golgi, vesicles, microtubules
Image at: http://imagebank.hematology.org/AssetDetail.aspx?AssetID=4105&AssetType=Asset
Lymphoid Lineage B Cells Role: produce antibodies, become antigen-presenting cells, become memory B cells Memory B cells “remember” specific antigens and can launch fast immune response if antigen is encountered again. Live for about 10 years.
Morphology: spherical, with very large nucleus and scant cytoplasm around it, has B-cell receptor on cell surface Defining Organelles: large ER and Golgi, lysosomes Image at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lymphocyte2.jpg
3. T Cells
Several types including T Helper and cytotoxic T cells Role: secrete cytokines after activation by APC to help aid active immune responses, and destroy virally infected and tumor cells by binding to antigens on their surface, respectively Morphology: Spherical with T-cell receptor on cell surface, covered with short microvilli Defining Organelles: ER, Golgi
Image at: http://www.iayork.com/MysteryRays/2008/03/30/whats-in-a-name-are-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-cytotoxic/
Response Question 3 What type of cell is also derived from hematopoietic stem cells that we have not gone over? A. B. C. D.
Chondroblasts (cartilage cells) Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Endothelium (cells that line blood vessels) Hepatocytes (liver cells)
Interactions between cells
Dendritic Cells present antigen to activate immature T cells to become CD4 or CD8 cells.
TH2 cells and costimulatory molecules released by TH1 cells activate B cells to produce antibodies.
Discussion What are the two major lineages that arise from hematopoietic stem cells? What types of cells can naïve T cells differentiate into? What is the relationship between dendritic cells and naïve T cells?
How are T cells related to B cells? What is the difference between an antigen and an antibody?
Review Activity Graphic Organizer Show the major lineages and what cells are formed. Connect lineages with lines and descriptor words. Start with hematopoietic stem cells.
TEACHER USE ONLY! View diagram showing all cell types derived from hematopoietic stem cells at http://www.allthingsstemcell.com/category/hematopoietic-stem-cells/ Have students make their own/use worksheet.
Nitric Oxide, Inflammation, and the Immune Response Lesson 2
Do Now What do you think are some possible effects of the immune system over-responding (responding too much)? Would the effects be positive, negative, or neutral? Explain your reasoning.
Inflammation Part of the immune response to pathogens Caused by vasodilation for the movement of plasma and immune cells into the injured tissues. Can be acute or chronic. Chronic inflammation occurs if the stimulus for the inflammation persists.
Mediated by macrophages and released chemicals such as IL-1 and TNF-alpha
Nitric Oxide & Inflammation
Nitric Oxide (NO) is released by macrophages to destroy the source of inflammation. NO is produced by the protein inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). iNOS is formed in after injury and inflammatory mediators are released. An increase in NO production can lead to tissue injury. Occurs when there’s an increase in inflammatory cytokines being released
Chronic Asthma Can be caused by allergies, environmental pollutants, microbial infections, or genetics
NO normally helps to regulate airway vascular tone and pulmonary surface tension. Over expression disrupts innate lung defenses that modulate lung inflammation, leading to chronic inflammation.
Article Review Read over questions for article. Read “The Inflammatory Response in the
Pathogenesis of Asthma.” Highlight important information to help you answer questions as you read.
Complete related worksheet & Inflammatory Response Flow Chart.
Intro to Aseptic Technique & Lab Procedures Lesson 3
Do now What does it mean when somebody is septic or goes into septic shock?
What does Aseptic mean? How can you practice being aseptic in a lab setting? List as many possible ways as you can.
Origin: septikos – rotten; a – without
Purpose: to keep the sterile cell culture free of microorganisms from the environment Four basic ways to achieve this 1. Sterile work area 2. Good personal hygiene 3. Sterile reagents & media
4. Sterile handling
1. Sterile Work Area Use a cell culture hood.
Maintain a clear work surface. Disinfect work surface before and after use with 70% ethanol. Image at: http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/References/gibco-cell-culture-basics/cell-culture-equipment/laminar-flow-hood.html
2. Good personal hygiene
Wash your hands before and after working with cell cultures. Tie your hair back. Wear personal protective equipment. Gloves Lab coat Image at: http://web.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/labsafetymanual/sec6c.htm
3. Sterile Reagents & Media
Commercial materials (bought from a company) are already sterilized. Materials prepared in the lab should be prepared with sterile instruments using aseptic technique.
4. Sterile Handling
Wipe outside of containers with 70% ethanol .
Use sterile glass or disposable plastic materials. Do not cross contaminate. Do not unwrap materials until the moment you are going to use them. Cap or seal with tape bottles, well plates, etc. to prevent contamination. Perform experiments rapidly (but safely!) to minimize exposure to contamination.
The Micropipette Used to measure small volumes accurately Uses disposable tips to prevent cross contamination
Can be set at a fixed volume or variable – you specify within a range Image at: http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/moncef/Pages/OperatingtheMicropipette.aspx
Setting the Volume Turn the volumeter adjustment on top. Stay within the micropipette’s range. Decimal appears only for smaller range pipettes – make sure to turn the adjustment to the correct volume. Image at: http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/vlab/bloodlab/eryfrag2_n.htm Table image at: http://www.scienceteacherprogram.org/biology/JBodenmiller10.html
Drawing liquid 1. Push pipette plunger down to FIRST stop while OUT of liquid. 2. Place tip into liquid, release plunger to draw liquid up. 3. Push back down on plunger to first stop to release liquid. 4. Push plunger further to second stop to expel any remaining liquid from tip. 5. Release plunger to go back to starting position.
Image at: http://www.karantinapertaniansby.com/en/?hal=detil_artikel&id=2
Practice! Learn how to use a micropipette to make a serial dilution.
Virtual Lab Activity
Hemocytometer Originally used to count blood cells, now used for various cell types. Cells first stained with trypan blue to determine viable from non-viable cells.
Used to calculate amount of cells in a solution from a 10 microliter sample. Image at: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/z359629?lang=en®ion=US
Practice! Hemocytometer virtual lab